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Universal access on equal terms to audiovisual content is a key point for the full inclusion of people with disabilities in activities of daily life. As a real challenge for the current Information Society, it has been detected but not achieved in an efficient way, due to the fact that current access solutions are mainly based in the traditional television standard and other not automated high-cost solutions. The arrival of new technologies within the hybrid television environment together with the application of different artificial intelligence techniques over the content will assure the deployment of innovative solutions for enhancing the user experience for all. In this paper, a set of different tools for image enhancement based on the combination between deep learning and computer vision algorithms will be presented. These tools will provide automatic descriptive information of the media content based on face detection for magnification and character identification. The fusion of this information will be finally used to provide a customizable description of the visual information with the aim of improving the accessibility level of the content, allowing an efficient and reduced cost solution for all.
The beneficial effects of cocoa on vascular function are mediated by the absorption of monomeric flavanols into the circulation from the small intestine. As such, an understanding of the impact of the food matrix on the delivery of flavanols to the circulation is critical in assessing the potential vascular impact of a food. In the present study, we investigated the impact of carbohydrate type on flavanol absorption and metabolism from chocolate. A randomised, double-blind, three-arm cross-over study was conducted, where fifteen volunteers were randomly assigned to either a high-flavanol (266 mg) chocolate containing maltitol, a high-flavanol (251 mg) chocolate with sucrose or a low-flavanol (48 mg) chocolate with sucrose. Test chocolates were matched for micro- and macronutrients, including the alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, and were similar in taste and appearance. Total flavanol absorption was lower after consumption of the maltitol-containing test chocolate compared with following consumption of its sucrose-containing equivalent (P = 0·002). Although the O-methylation pattern observed for absorbed flavanols was unaffected by sugar type, individual levels of unmethylated ( − )-epicatechin metabolites, 3′-O-methyl-epicatechin and 4′-O-methyl-epicatechin metabolites were lower for the maltitol-containing test chocolate compared with the sucrose-containing equivalent. Despite a reduction in the total plasma pool of flavanols, the maximum time (Tmax) was unaffected. The present data indicate that full assessment of intervention treatments is vital in future intervention trials with flavanols and that carbohydrate content is an important determinant for the optimal delivery of flavanols to the circulation.
Certain patient populations provide challenging clinical situations for the sedation provider. Patients with cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic renal failure, obesity, or advanced age are considered high risk and possess a higher rate of procedural complications. This chapter discusses important features of these higher-risk patients and practice management when sedation is required. COPD is frequently found in patients with chronic bronchitis or emphysema. Common procedural complications in this patient population include hypoventilation (hypoxemia and hypercapnia) and bronchospasm. Bronchospasm manifests as wheezing, and it is commonly caused by an exacerbation of the patient's COPD, but an anaphylactoid reaction to a sedation medication should be ruled out. Patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) who become oversedated experience cardiac complications related to hypotension and/or hypoxemia. Medication used for sedation should be titrated in slowly, carefully watching hemodynamic response to the medication.
Materials with high specific surface areas such as pillared clays and zeolites have been studied and can be used to remediate contaminated water. Chemical functionality or compounds can be anchored or attached to the surface of a low-cost material used as a support matrix. This work studied the suitability of inexpensive natural mineral soils to decontaminate waste water from mine and metallurgic industries. Native mineral soils were also impregnated with commercial 1,3 diphenyltiourea (DFT) to improve retention of heavy metal ions. The natural mineral soils were from Hidalgo State in Mexico: white marble (calcite: CaCO3), volcanic gravels named “red and black tezontles” (anorthite matrix: CaO.Al2O3.(SiO2)2 with FexOy and PbxOy), green zeolites (mordenite: Na2CaK2. OAl2O3.10SiO2.7H2O) and kaolin (kaolinite: Al2O3(SiO2)2.H2O). They were ground and sieved. The 50 mesh fraction was studied by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, X ray powder diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). From these solids new hybrid materials were prepared by impregnation with DFT in ethanolic solutions. Products were characterized and compared with untreated materials. Tezontles, zeolites and kaolinite showed the best impregnation levels. In their surfaces, grown DFT crystals showed different structures. The obtained hybrid solids were tested using several metallic ion solutions: Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II). The metallic adducts were analyzed and the adsorption capacity is discussed. The materials showed high remotion percentages for all metal ions and low Hg(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) final concentrations. They have good potential for use in remediation of contaminated water with highly toxic metal ions. The metallic adducts were characterized by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, as well as SEM/EDX analysis. However, all of mentioned methods were not useful for detection of impregnated DFT nor adsorbed or coordinated metallic ions on the supporting materials. Only the SEM/EDX method was found to be suitable for analysis.
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