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Stigma is one of the most important barriers to help-seeking and to personal recovery for people suffering from mental disorders. Stigmatizing attitudes are present among mental health professionals with negative effects on the quality of health care.
Network and moderator analysis were used to identify what path determines stigma, considering demographic and professional variables, personality traits, and burnout dimensions in a sample of mental health professionals (n = 318) from six Community Mental Health Services. The survey included the Attribution Questionnaire-9, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory.
The personality trait of openness to new experiences resulted to determine lower levels of stigma. Burnout (personal accomplishment) interacted with emotional stability in predicting stigma, and specifically, for subjects with lower emotional stability lower levels of personal accomplishment were associated with higher levels of stigma.
Some personality traits may be accompanied by better empathic and communication skills, and may have a protective role against stigma. Moreover, burnout can increase stigma, in particular in subjects with specific personality traits. Assessing personality and burnout levels could help in identifying mental health professionals at higher risk of developing stigma. Future studies should determine whether targeted interventions in mental health professionals at risk of developing stigma may be effective in stigma prevention.
To determine whether self-reported history of disease and/or vaccination is predictive of immunity against hepatitis B, varicella, rubella, mumps, and measles.
The seroprevalence of viral antibodies and the predictive value of a self-report questionnaire were determined for 616 paramedical students who matriculated into Padua Medical School (Padua, Italy) during 2003-2005.
The majority of subjects (86.9%) remembered being vaccinated against hepatitis B but had no recollection of disease. Among vaccinees, 1.5% showed markers of previous infection, 6.7% tested negative for anti-hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) antibodies, and 91.8% tested positive for anti-HBsAg. Self-reported vaccination history had a positive predictive value of 93.2% for test results positive for immunity against hepatitis B. Immunity against varicella (93.7% of subjects) and rubella (95.5%) was high, compared with immunity against mumps (79.9%) and measles (83.1%). In addition, results of tests for detection of immunity against mumps and measles were equivocal for more than 7% of subjects, probably because their vaccination regimen was not completed. Self-reported histories of varicella disease and rubella disease and vaccination had high positive predictive values (greater than 98% each) for testing positive for antiviral antibodies, compared with self-reported histories of mumps disease and vaccination and measles disease and vaccination; however, high positive predictive values were observed for self-reported histories of mumps only (92.0%) and measles only (94.7%).
The self-report questionnaire used in this study did not accurately predict immunity against 5 transmittable but vaccine-preventable diseases. A complete serological evaluation of healthcare workers, followed by vaccination of those with negative or equivocal results of serological tests, is an appropriate measure to decrease the risk of infection in this population.
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