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This study aims to evaluate the long-term impact of living in postdisaster prefabricated temporary housing on social interaction activities and mental health status.
A total of 917 adult residents in a coastal town, whose residences were destroyed by the tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE), were enrolled for the assessment held 5 y after the disaster. They answered questions about their experience and consequence of living in prefabricated temporary housing after the disaster. Their present scores on 5 types of self-reported measures regarding the psychosocial or psychiatric status and their present and recalled social interaction activities were cross-sectionally collected.
A total of 587 (64.0%) participants had a history of living in prefabricated temporary housing, while the other 330 (36.0%) had not. The prevalence of social interaction activities significantly decreased after the GEJE. However, the experience of living in prefabricated temporary housing did not adversely affect the subsequent social interaction activities or mental conditions of the participants 5 y after the disaster.
Living in postdisaster prefabricated temporary housing may not negatively impact subsequent psychosocial conditions or social interaction activities 5 y later.
This study examined the association between psychological distress and the risk of withdrawing from hypertension treatment (HTTx) 1 year after the earthquake disaster in the coastal area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE).
Using cross-sectional data from 2012, we studied people over 20 years of age living in Shichigahama Town, Miyagi, on the northeastern coast of Japan, which had been severely inundated by the tsunami that followed the GEJE in 2011. A total of 1014 subjects were categorized as in need of HTTx. Withdrawing from HTTx was assessed by using a self-reported questionnaire.
Subjects with a higher degree of psychological distress (Kessler-6 [K6] score ≥ 13) exhibited a significantly higher risk of withdrawing from HTTx, compared with subjects with a lower degree of psychological distress (K6 score ≤ 12; odds ratio=4.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.3-10.6, P<0.01).
This study indicated that psychological distress is a risk factor for withdrawing from HTTx in post-disaster settings. Our data suggested that the increased risk of withdrawing from HTTx associated with post-disaster psychological distress may underlie the increased prevalence of vascular diseases after the earthquake disaster in coastal areas affected by the tsunami. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:179–182)
Hexagonal ZnO was grown on hexagonal (001) sapphire substrate, then cubic La(Sr)MnO3(LSMO) was grown on ZnO underlayer by ion beam sputtering at substrate temperatures of 550-750°C to obtain double-layer of LSMO/ZnO. Out-of-plane (001) oriented ZnO was grown with in-plane orientation of [10-10](0001)ZnO//[11-20](0001)sapphire. Mixed phase of LSMO with out-of-plane (001), (110) and (111) orientations was grown on (001) ZnO usually. However each single phase of LSMO could be grown by controlling deposition conditions. The LSMO grains have their in-plane orientations of (110)LSMO //[10-10](0001)ZnO and (111)LSMO//[11-20](0001)ZnO.
We have developed new gene expression-regulating polymer that can activate transgene expression in response to target intracellular signals. Here, we tried applying sonoporation system to this gene regulation system to enhance the gene expression efficacy. Sonoporation is the method for effective gene transfection in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the method might enhance the transfection efficiency in our polymer and realize an efficient and safe gene delivery system. Results suggested that the combination of our polymer and sonoporation could improve the gene expression compared to the system using only our polymer that transfers genes into cells via endocytosis. It also kept the ability of the gene regulation responding to cellular signals.
For further improvements in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field-effect transistor performance (HFET), it is necessary to reduce the leakage current of the GaN buffer layer. We found a correlation between the leakage current and the intensity of the yellow luminescence of GaN layers taken by UV lamp excitation. The GaN layers were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on SiC substrates. When the samples were excited by a UV (365 nm) lamp, visible yellow luminescence was observed. The leakage current of the GaN buffer layer was measured after deposition of ohmic metal contact. We confirmed clear correlation between the leakage current and the luminescence intensity based from result that the samples with the larger leakage current showed the stronger luminescence intensity. This correlation gives us useful information to understand the drain-source leakage current of AlGaN/GaN HFET.
The anisotropically biaxial strain in a-plane AlGaN on GaN is investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis of the heterostructure of AlGaN and GaN grown on r-plane sapphire. The AlGaN layer with a low AlN molar fraction or small thickness is coherently grown on the GaN layer both along the m-axis and c-axis. An increase in AlN molar fraction or thickness in AlGaN, results in a slight relaxation of AlGaN only in one direction due to tensile stress along the c-axis, which is caused by the underlying GaN layer during the growth. The cause of the relaxation of AlGaN in one direction is thought to be a large anisotropically biaxial stress.
Current-voltage (IV) measurements and capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements have been carried out to investigate electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN-HEMT structures. By CV measurements of Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) with large leak currents, we observed a distinct peak in CV profiling at low frequencies. The integral of this peak was found to have a correlation with a leak current. The behavior of this peak might be described by the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) model if we assume this peak is due to a phenomenon of an electron emission and capture by deep levels. Then Quasi-Fermi Level (Imref) at the bias point where this peak appears in CV profiling corresponds to energy depth of deep levels. That energy level can be approximated by Imref of two-dimensional (2D) electron gas. The result of our samples showed that the energy depth of deep levels from the conduction band is distributed from 320meV to 470meV for Al mole fraction from 0.19 to 0.30, respectively.
Mg-doped p-type a-plane GaN films were grown on unintentionally doped a-plane GaN templates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The Mg concentration in a-plane GaN increased with increasing Mg source gas flow rate. A maximum hole concentration of 2.0 × 1018 cm-3 with a hole mobility of 4.5 cm2/Vs and resistivity of 0.7 Ω·cm were achieved. The activation ratio was 5.0 × 10-2. It was found that a maximum hole concentration in p-type a-plane GaN was higher than that in p-type c-plane GaN. The activation energy of Mg acceptors in p-type a-plane GaN with the maximum hole concentration was found to be 118 meV by temperature-dependent Hall-effect measurement.
Mechanism of electron transport through planerized nanocrystalline-Si (nc-Si) cold cathode surface emitting devices was investigated. The energy distribution of electrons emitted from nc-Si emitter was obviously not Maxwellian, which was usually obtained at conventional cold cathode devices, but was similar to that from the nanocrystalline porous silicon diode emitter. These results strongly suggest that electrons are emitted quasiballistically from our devices and indicate that the planarized nc-Si layer play an important role in this high efficiency cold cathode emitter.