Low-energy electron beam (EB) irradiation, generally applied to enhance hardening and wear resistance of polymer, was a successful surface treatment. Effect of EB irradiation was the homogeneous activation of surface atoms and the breaking of the chemical bonds in the network structure of a surface layer of inorganic glasses. When EB irradiation generated dangling bonds at the weaker-bonded metal-oxygen atomic pairs in the glass network structure, partial relaxation occurred at points of residual strain in the network structure. It was clear that the increased rigidity was mainly due to an increase in the bonding energy of the stronger-bonded metal-oxygen atomic pairs in the atomic network structure. The possible beneficial effects of EB irradiation on the impact value of transparent inorganic glass was investigated. To clarify the results, ESR observations were used to confirm the existence of dangling bonds. The EB irradiation increased the impact value of the transparent inorganic glasses. Based on the ESR signals of transparent glasses before and after EB irradiation, the high density of dangling bonds was obtained.