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To deliver mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficiently, the present study aimed (1) to identify predictors and moderators of patients who benefit from MBCT for psychological distress and (2) to explore the initial treatment reaction to identify the optimal number of sessions that produce a significant clinical effect.
This is the secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of MBCT for breast cancer patients (N = 74). We classified the participants into remitters vs. non-remitters, and responder vs. non-responders, according to the total score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the end of the intervention. We conducted multivariate analyses to explore for predictors of response and remission. We adopted generalized estimating equations to explore the optimal number of sessions.
Sociodemographic and clinical backgrounds did not have significant influence on the treatment outcomes of the MBCT. Better program adherence, which was represented as the participants’ better attendance to the MBCT program, was a significant predictor of both remission and response [odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25–2.89, p = 0.003, and OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.12–2.65, p = 0.013, respectively]. It was not until seventh session that the remission rate exceeded 50% and the response rate showed significance.
Significance of results
Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics did not significantly influence the treatment outcomes, while homework minutes and class attendance had significant effects on treatment outcomes. This implies that MBCT is recommended to any cancer patient, if he/she is motivated to the program, regardless of their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Patients are encouraged to attend a standard MBCT program (eight sessions) and do the assigned homework as intensely as possible. Further studies with larger sample and objective measurements are desired.
Caregivers of people with dementia are likely to have psychological distress that sometimes results in mental health problems, such as depression. The objective of this study was to examine some predictive factors that are thought to be associated with psychological distress of caregivers of people with dementia in Japan.
Design: A cross-sectional study. Sample: As part of a study to estimate the cost of dementia in Japan, 1,437 people with dementia-caregiver dyads were enrolled in the current informal care time study. The measurements in the study included were the basic characteristics of the caregivers and the people with dementia, and the informal care time during a week.
Factors that predict caregivers’ psychological distress, which was measured by Kessler's Psychological Distress scale (K6) score, were evaluated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses.
Approximately 69% of the caregivers recorded a K6 score higher than 4, while 18% scored higher than 12. According to the results of the logistic regression analysis (cut-off 4/5), the K6 score was associated with mental and comorbid diseases of people with dementia, informal care time, its lower number of caregivers, and the level of nursing care. According to the results of logistic regression analysis (cut-off 12/13), the K6 score was associated with mental symptoms and comorbid disease of people with dementia, sex of caregivers, informal care time, and its lower number of caregivers.
Our findings indicated that the psychological distress of the caregivers is quite high and that informal care time and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are associated with it. These results corroborate with previous findings.
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