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The Japanese second deep ice coring project was carried out at Dome Fuji, Antarctica. Following the drilling of the pilot hole in 2001, deep ice core drilling led by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) was conducted over four austral summer seasons, beginning with the 2003/04 season and reached a depth of 3035.22 m near the bedrock in January 2007. The new drill was designed and developed with the goals of (1) solving the problems encountered during the first JARE deep coring drill and (2) achieving more efficient drilling. In particular, the maximum core length that can be drilled at one time was increased from 2.30 m to 3.84 m and the chip storage efficiency was enhanced by a special pipe with many small holes. This paper gives an outline of the improved drilling system, the progress of drilling and various drilling data.
Layer transfer and simultaneous activation of phosphorus atoms in Si films induced by semiconductor diode laser (SDL) irradiation have been investigated. Phosphorus-doped a-Si films supported by columns on a starting substrate (quartz) and a counter substrate (glass) were closely contacted face-to-face, and an 812 nm light from a SDL was irradiated to the a-Si films from the backside of the starting substrate. After SDL irradiation, 20μm wide and 1000μm long Si films were transferred to the counter substrate and were crystallized simultaneously. From optical microscope images, it was confirmed that the original form was completely maintained after the film transfer. The electrical conductivity of transferred Si film was as high as 708 S/cm. Hall measurement of the films revealed very high electron concentration of 9.5×1020 cm-3, which indicated efficient doping is achieved by the laser transfer technique.
The effects of the anti-methanogenic compound, bromochloromethane (BCM), on rumen microbial fermentation and ecology were examined in vivo. Japanese goats were fed a diet of 50 % Timothy grass and 50 % concentrate and then sequentially adapted to low, mid and high doses of BCM. The goats were placed into the respiration chambers for analysis of rumen microbial function and methane and H2 production. The levels of methane production were reduced by 5, 71 and 91 %, and H2 production was estimated at 545, 2941 and 3496 mmol/head per d, in response to low, mid and high doses of BCM, respectively, with no effect on maintenance feed intake and digestibility. Real-time PCR quantification of microbial groups showed a significant decrease relative to controls in abundance of methanogens and rumen fungi, whereas there were increases in Prevotella spp. and Fibrobacter succinogenes, a decrease in Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens was unchanged. The numbers of protozoa were also unaffected. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR analysis revealed that several Prevotella spp. were the bacteria that increased most in response to BCM treatment. It is concluded that the methane-inhibited rumen adapts to high hydrogen levels by shifting fermentation to propionate via Prevotella spp., but the majority of metabolic hydrogen is expelled as H2 gas.
A method to observe the dispersion structure of carbon nanotubes buried inside a molding composite is described in this communication. The idea is that by utilizing the difference in ablation temperature between the tubes and the composite material, only the composite material, which has a lower ablation temperature, is ablated and buried tubes appear. This was applied to a rubber composite mixed with vapor-grown carbon fibers. A 150-fs pulse laser was prepared as an ablation source. In the ablation images observed with a field-emission secondary electron microscope, linear tubes, clusters, and connections of the tubes could be easily found in their original state.
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