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Were synthesized four new hybrid hardener agents type amino tertiary functionalized with allyl groups from : l, 6-Hexanediamine, Diethylenetriamine, Trietilentriamine and Tris (2-aminoethyl) amine, using the basic nucleophilic substitution mechanism, replacing bromide by amino tertiary group in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide as phase transfer agent, producing allyl amine corresponding: ALA-4, ALA-5, ALA-6 and TRIS respectively, which were evaluated as a hardening of epoxy resin DGEBA through photopolymerization process by UV ligth curing, adding a 10, 20 and 40% molar percentage of hybrid materials and the thiol corresponding to carry out the thiol-ene reaction (TMP TMP, PTKMP) with DMPA as initiator. The resinic materials obtained, were evaluated by the technique of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) at a heating rate of 5° C/min in a range from - 50° C to 150° C in nitrogen atmosphere. The formulations with hybrid hardening agent ALA 4- 20% -PTKMP and TRIS 10% -PTKMP were the materials with modulus 2289, 2971 Mpa and tgs of 102,103°C, respectively.
Recent studies suggest that sand can serve as a vehicle for exposure of humans to pathogens at beach sites, resulting in increased health risks. Sampling for microorganisms in sand should therefore be considered for inclusion in regulatory programmes aimed at protecting recreational beach users from infectious disease. Here, we review the literature on pathogen levels in beach sand, and their potential for affecting human health. In an effort to provide specific recommendations for sand sampling programmes, we outline published guidelines for beach monitoring programmes, which are currently focused exclusively on measuring microbial levels in water. We also provide background on spatial distribution and temporal characteristics of microbes in sand, as these factors influence sampling programmes. First steps toward establishing a sand sampling programme include identifying appropriate beach sites and use of initial sanitary assessments to refine site selection. A tiered approach is recommended for monitoring. This approach would include the analysis of samples from many sites for faecal indicator organisms and other conventional analytes, while testing for specific pathogens and unconventional indicators is reserved for high-risk sites. Given the diversity of microbes found in sand, studies are urgently needed to identify the most significant aetiological agent of disease and to relate microbial measurements in sand to human health risk.
A number of systems based on synthetic molecules, among them cationic liposomes and poly(ethylene imine)-based polymers, have been proposed as delivery vehicles for nucleic acids. Some of these systems have even reached the market, ensuring efficient and transient transfection levels in a variety of cell types. However, toxicity issues have limited their application in vivo. In this context, chitosan, a biocompatible and biodegradable polysaccharide, has been proposed as a promising alternative for the delivery of nucleic acid-based molecules. Here we present an overview of the state of the art of chitosan-based vectors for nucleic acid delivery and the most recent data on the in vivo testing of the proposed systems. We additionally express our view on the barriers that might be hampering the translation of this knowledge into clinical practice and the challenges that need to be fulfilled for these promising vehicles to reach patients.
In this work is discussed the synthesis of a novel antishrinking agent (SOC DA) and the evaluation of its performance in an acrylic dental resin. SOC DA was photopolymerized in conjunction with the components of a conventional acrylic resin, which includes a mixture of diacrylate monomers [glycerolate bisphenol A dimethacrylate (BIS-GMA) / Urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) / triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)] in 50/30/20 molar ratio). SOC DA was added in a range between 5.0-20.0 mol % with respect to the total amount of moles of the acrylic monomers. It was found that increasing concentrations of SOC DA, promoted higher conversions of the dimethacrylate monomers without decreasing the photopolymerization rate of the acrylate monomers. The study of the effect of SOC DA on the mechanical properties of the dental composite filled with 70 % of silicon dioxide, revealed that the presence of the antishrinking agent improved both the compressive and the flexural strength of the dental materials. Besides, it was found that by using the SOC DA at 20%, the shrinkage was reduced 52%, compared with the same formulation without SOC DA.
A novel biopolymer derived from diallyl sucrose (A2S) and dithiotreitol (DTT) was prepared by means of Thiol-Ene Photopolymerization. A2S was prepared by alkylating the sucrose with allyl bromide, using water as solvent. After purification by column chromatography, a fraction (F2A2S) with 94% diallyl sucrose (A2S), 4 % of triallyl sucrose (A3S) and 2 % of monoallyl sucrose (A1S) was obtained. This fraction was subsequently photopolymerized with Dithiothreitol (DTT) which is a difunctional thiol. Kinetics of photopolymerization were determined by means of Real-Time Infrared spectroscopy. It was found that the photocurable formulation with DTT and F2A2S, polymerized rapidly in the presence and absence of a photoinitiator, at low intensities of UV light. After bulk polymerization, a flexible material with high elastic modulus and a Tg of 30 °C was obtained. Besides, the polymer displayed moderate water absorbance properties as a result of the presence of multiple hydroxyl groups. This property was pH dependent with maximum absorbance at pH=14. The polymer degraded rapidly under acidic conditions
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