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Trematodes of the genus Ogmocotyle are intestinal flukes that can infect a variety of definitive hosts, resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. However, there are few studies on molecular data of these trematodes. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ogmocotyle ailuri isolated from red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was determined and compared with those from Pronocephalata to investigate the mt genome content, genetic distance, gene rearrangements and phylogeny. The complete mt genome of O. ailuri is a typical closed circular molecule of 14 642 base pairs, comprising 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. In addition, 23 intergenic spacers and 2 locations with gene overlaps were determined. Sequence identities and sliding window analysis indicated that cox1 is the most conserved gene among 12 PCGs in O. ailuri mt genome. The sequenced mt genomes of the 48 Plagiorchiida trematodes showed 5 types of gene arrangement based on all mt genome genes, with the gene arrangement of O. ailuri being type I. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs revealed that O. ailuri was closer to Ogmocotyle sikae than to Notocotylus intestinalis. These data enhance the Ogmocotyle mt genome database and provide molecular resources for further studies of Pronocephalata taxonomy, population genetics and systematics.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Disturbances in emotion regulation (ER) are characteristic of both patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ). We investigated the temporal dynamics of brain activation during cognitive ER in BD and SZ to understand the contribution of temporal characteristics of disturbed ER to their unique and shared symptomatology.
Forty-six participants performed an ER-task (BD, n = 15; SZ, n = 16; controls, n = 15) during functional magnetic resonance imaging, in which they were instructed to use cognitive reappraisal techniques to regulate their emotional responses. Finite impulse response modeling was applied to estimate the temporal dynamics of brain responses during cognitive reappraisal (v. passive attending) of negative pictures. Group, time, and group × time effects were tested using multivariate modeling.
We observed a group × time interaction during ER in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior occipital gyrus. Patients with SZ demonstrated initial hyper-activation of the VLPFC and SMA activation that was not sustained in later regulatory phases. Response profiles in the inferior occipital gyrus in SZ showed abnormal activation in the later phases of regulation. BD-patients showed general blunted responsivity in these regions.
These results suggest that ER-disturbances in SZ are characterized by an inefficient initialization and failure to sustain regulatory control, whereas in BD, a failure to recruit regulatory resources may represent initial deficits in formulating adequate representations of the regulatory needs. This may help to further understand how ER-disturbances give rise to symptomatology of BD and SZ.
The objective of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in erythrocyte membrane fluidity (EMF) and changes in antioxidant capacity following supplementation. A total of seventy-four children were randomly divided into two groups: group A1 was the placebo-controlled group and group A2 was supplemented daily with 600 μg retinol, 1·0 mg β-carotene, 100 mg tocopherol, 300 mg ascorbic acid and 200 μg Se. A total of ninety young people were randomly divided into B1 and B2 groups, and ninety-one elderly subjects were divided into C1 and C2 groups. Groups B1 and C1 were placebo-controlled groups, and groups B2 and C2 were daily supplemented with 900 μg retinol, 1·5 mg β-carotene, 200 mg tocopherol, 500 mg ascorbic acid and 400 μg Se. Results showed that plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) was 5·35 μmol/l in children, which was lower than in young and elderly people. The MDA levels of the young and elderly individuals in the treated groups were significantly lower compared with the control groups, but the supplementation did not alter MDA levels in children. At baseline, there was a lower value of polarisation (ρ) and microviscosity (η) in children, indicating a higher EMF, than in both the young and elderly subjects. After the 2-month trial, the ρ and η values of young and elderly subjects in the treated groups decreased significantly in comparison with the placebo groups, indicating an increase in EMF. In conclusion, there was a background of higher MDA levels and lower EMF in young and elderly people than in children, which could be improved by antioxidant supplementation.
To analyse the influence of genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa) containing the exogenous choline oxidase (codA) gene on physiological metabolism and genetic horizontal transformation in the fed rats, the animals were divided randomly into two groups. One group was fed with the feedstuff containing 30% of transgenic rice. The remaining (control) group was fed with the feedstuff containing 30% of non-transgenic rice. After 30 days, growth, physiological metabolism parameters such as growth hormone (GH), insulin, glucagon, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and the genetic horizontal transformation were analysed. Results indicated that the weight of all rats from the two groups was similar (P>0.05). Also, there was no significant difference in the level of GH, insulin, glucagon, T4, T3 and TSH between the treated and untreated rats. The serum urea nitrogen (SUN), glucose, the glutamate–pyruvate transaminase (GTP), as well as the total cholesterol, of treated rats were almost identical to those of the control (P>0.05). Moreover, no target DNA sequence of rice endogenous sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene or exogenous choline oxidase (codA) gene was detected in organs (liver, muscle, pancreas, etc.) except the stomach, gastrointestinal and rectum contents, and no genetic horizontal transformation was observed in rats fed with transgenic rice.
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