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Over million-year timescales, the geologic cycling of carbon controls long-term climate and the oxidation of Earth's surface. Inferences about the carbon cycle can be made from time series of carbon isotopic ratios measured from sedimentary rocks. The foundational assumption for carbon isotope chemostratigraphy is that carbon isotope values reflect dissolved inorganic carbon in a well-mixed ocean in equilibrium with the atmosphere. However, when applied to shallow-water platform environments, where most ancient carbonates preserved in the geological record formed, recent research has documented the importance of considering both local variability in surface water chemistry and diagenesis. These findings demonstrate that carbon isotope chemostratigraphy of platform carbonate rarely represent the average carbonate sink or directly records changes in the composition of global seawater. Understanding what causes local variability in shallow-water settings, and what this variability might reveal about global boundary conditions, are vital questions for the next generation of carbon isotope chemostratigraphers.
This unique textbook equips students with the theoretical and practical tools needed to model, design, and build efficient and clean low-carbon energy systems. Students are introduced to thermodynamics principles including chemical and electrochemical thermodynamics, moving onto applications in real-world energy systems, demonstrating the connection between fundamental concepts and theoretical analysis, modelling, application, and design. Topics gradually increase in complexity, nurturing student confidence as they build towards the use of advanced concepts and models for low to zero carbon energy conversion systems. The textbook covers conventional and emerging renewable energy conversion systems, including efficient fuel cells, carbon capture cycles, biomass utilisation, geothermal and solar thermal systems, hydrogen and low-carbon fuels. Featuring numerous worked examples, over 100 multi-component homework problems, and online instructor resources including lecture slides, solutions, and sample term projects, this textbook is the perfect teaching resource for an advanced undergraduate and graduate-level course in energy conversion engineering.
Aromatase enzyme is a microsomal cytochrome P450 hemoprotein-containing enzyme (the product of the CYP19 gene). It catalyzes the production of estrogens by conversion of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone) to estrone and estradiol in many tissues of the human body including the brain and ovaries. Extensive ultrasound monitoring of the letrozole-induced cycles is not required for either the number of follicles or endometrial thickness when standard dose of 2.5 or 5 mg is used based on our previous experience and many research studies, but at least minimal monitoring is mandatory for the particular group of women with PCOS especially when higher doses of letrozole are required.
Legal enforcement of international obligations under domestic law is a contradiction in terms because the same state that has the conclusive obligation to protect human rights also has exclusive control of the means of legal enforcement under domestic law. The impulse for the state to obstruct or hinder the domestic enforcement of its international obligations under routine trade and international relations is effectively precluded by fear of retaliation by other states and/or international organizations that have the power and resources to secure their economic, trade, security, and other interests under international law. Unfortunately, human rights treaties are unlikely to have similar benefits for states when they implement or enforce the treaty or international custom on which a human rights claim is based.1
The conclusion I find appropriate and credible for this book should be about practical action instead of theoretical abstraction. With human rights as the ultimate measure of our humanity, our focus should be on strategies for action by the most inclusive measures. Working on cultural transformation requires engaging issues of public ethic and socializing children to instill appropriate values of transparency and accountability in public service. The key factor in this process of cultural transformation is the intuitive and spontaneous manner by which the promoters of these values practice what they preach. The object should be to internalize and promote values of compassion and empathy with minorities and marginalized communities. Yet, the objective should never be to excel or prevail over others because that will diminish the communal values needed to accomplish the task.
The premise of this book is that, like everything else in life and human experience since the beginning of time, evolution is the key for understanding how the world works. For me, as a Muslim, only God is the permanent reality, while everything else evolves with time and in response to changing circumstances. Since human rights are rendered in the service of human beings, they must evolve with the life experience of their subject, namely, human beings on the ground everywhere, for each person and community on their own terms. This is the true meaning of universal human rights which are worthy of global struggle for their realization and protection. By the principle of the concept itself, no other person, group, or entity can impose their view in defining, interpreting, or elaborating human rights norms and institutions for others. The way remains open for respectful debate, contestation, suggestions, and recommendations, but these should never violate the dignity and freedom of the human subject. This is what we all know as the Golden Rule, or the principle of reciprocity. If in doubt as to whether a debate or challenge is in violation of this fundamental principle, imagine the situation with you as the subject of violation of human dignity and freedom.1
In this chapter I will highlight and explain how, by their nature and practice, cultural transformation and political mobilization are already the means for sustainable social and political change for all societies relative to their own context. This does not mean that the nature and outcome of social and political change is the same in all societies. Rather, the point for this book is that the manner and process of transformation and mobilization for each society happens on its own terms in relation to its own history and context. Societies can neither be “tricked” nor “coerced” into accepting ethical or cultural change or submitting to whatever political mobilization seems to produce at the time. The outcome of these processes may not be to our liking or satisfaction, but we all have the tools and opportunity to join and attempt to influence the outcome of these processes. The emphasis on the human agency of people in their communities and through socially appropriate strategies reflects the interaction of ends and means in the protection of human rights by human beings in their communal context. The only way for sustainable defense of human rights is through cultural transformation of underlying values and political mobilization for the political will to defend these rights. This is also the only means to experience the responsibility of defending these rights by themselves in their own experience.
As illustrated by the case briefly discussed in Chapter 2 (see “The Supreme Hypocrisy of US Human Rights Policy”), the United States gets away with minimal ratification of human rights treaties while claiming global leadership of the entire field. The United States of America also imposes extensive reservations and other limitations on the scope of the few treaties it cares to ratify. Yet, the massive propaganda at all diplomatic, civil, cultural, and academic levels, as well as in official and political circles in the United States, makes it difficult for readers to recall that this apparent American compliance with domestic civil rights does not equal conformity with international human rights norms.
In his extensive body of work, Professor Abdullahi Ahmed An-Naim challenges both historical interpretations of Islamic Sharia and neo-colonial understanding of human rights. To advance the rationale of scholarship for social change, An-Naim proposes advancing the universality of human rights through internal discourse within Islamic and African societies and cross-cultural dialogue among human cultures. This book proposes a transformation from human rights organized around a state determined practice to one that is focused on a people-centric approach that empowers individuals to decide how human rights will be understood and integrated into their communities. Decolonizing Human Rights aims to illustrate the decisive role of human agency on the subject of change, without implying that Islamic or any other society are exceptionally disposed to politically motivated violence and consequent profound political instability.
All textile integrated dual-band monopole antenna with an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) is proposed. The proposed design operates at 2.4 and 5.8 GHz for wearable medical applications to monitor the heartbeat. A flexible and low-profile E- shaped CPW dual-band textile antenna is integrated with a 4 × 4 dual-band textile AMC reflector to enhance the gain and specific absorption rate (SAR). The SAR is reduced by nearly 95% at both 1 and 10 g. The design was measured on the body with a 2 mm separation. The simulated and measured results appear in high agreement in the case of with and without AMC array integration. The measurement was performed in the indoor environment and in an anechoic chamber to validate the design based on reflection coefficient and radiation pattern measurements.
People diagnosed with dementia are often started on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). As AChEIs can be associated with cardiac side-effects, an electrocardiogram (ECG) is sometimes requested before treatment. Previous work has suggested there is little consensus as to when or how ECGs should be obtained. This can create inconsistent practice, with patient safety, economic and practical repercussions. We surveyed 305 UK memory clinic practitioners about prescribing practice.
More than 84% of respondents completed a pulse and cardiac history before prescribing AChEIs. Opinion was divided as to who should fund and conduct ECGs. It was believed that obtaining an ECG causes patients inconvenience and delays treatment. Despite regularly interpreting ECGs, 76% of respondents did not update this clinical skill regularly.
The variation in practice observed has service-level and patient implications and raises potential patient safety concerns. Implementing national guidelines or seeking novel ways of conducting cardiac monitoring could help standardise practice.