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This study aimed to evaluate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) level in milk powder and infant milk formulae, in addition to applying innovative methods for AFM1 & AFB1 detoxification. Fifty random samples of milk powder and infant formulae (25 of each) were collected from the Egyptian markets for assessing AFM1 level using ELISA technique. Bioactive components comprising cell free supernatants (postbiotic), acid-dead cells (parabiotic) and the encapsulated-cells of Lactobacillus plantarum RM1 and Lactobacillus paracasei KC39 were evaluated for their antifungal activity against toxigenic mold strains and their impact on AFB1 and AFM1 reduction in reconstituted milk powder. AFM1 concentration in unpacked milk powder was higher than that of packed samples and infant formulae, although these differences were not significant (P > 0.05). About 96.0, 29.4 and 25.0% of the tested infant formulae, unpacked, and packed milk powder were unacceptable in terms of the AFM1 limit defined by Egyptian and European standards, while all samples were in accordance with the USA/FDA standard. All tested mycotoxigenic strains were sensitive to the different treatments of the probiotics with the highest sensitivity regarding Fusarium strain with L. paracasei KC39 compared to other genera. The degradation ratios of AFM1 using the bioactives of the L. paracasei KC39 were higher than that of L. plantarum RM1 bioactives. Additionally, KC39 parabiotic manifested the best AFB1 reduction (60.56%). In conclusion, the positive and highly significant relationship (P < 0.05) between these effective biocompounds mirrors their major detoxification role which gives a safe solution for AFs contamination issues in milk and milk products.
This chapter ventures into defining the Islamic legal tradition, its main characteristics as a legal tradition. Three main themes shed light on the nature of Islamic law historically. These themes are (1) legal pluralism, (2) legal determinacy, and (3) legal reform. While defining a tradition is hampered by its pluralism, legal determinacy allows for some stability and a better attempt at definition. I argue that in our conceptualization of the Islamic legal tradition we must incorporate the practice of law in the work of judges, rather than narrowly focusing on the black-letter discourse of jurists. It is this interaction, which is captured in several legal genres, that creates a stable legal system. In addition to the realist nature of this approach, it also promises to open up new possibilities for legal reform.
All textile integrated dual-band monopole antenna with an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) is proposed. The proposed design operates at 2.4 and 5.8 GHz for wearable medical applications to monitor the heartbeat. A flexible and low-profile E- shaped CPW dual-band textile antenna is integrated with a 4 × 4 dual-band textile AMC reflector to enhance the gain and specific absorption rate (SAR). The SAR is reduced by nearly 95% at both 1 and 10 g. The design was measured on the body with a 2 mm separation. The simulated and measured results appear in high agreement in the case of with and without AMC array integration. The measurement was performed in the indoor environment and in an anechoic chamber to validate the design based on reflection coefficient and radiation pattern measurements.
The current study was aimed to evaluate the effects of variable doses of the weedicide glyphosate on the ileal (the final section of the small intestine) structure of rats of both sexes, using histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural methods. Forty animals were classified into four groups of 10 animals per group (five males and five females). The first group acted as a control, and the remaining groups were treated with glyphosate-Roundup® 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight daily for 15 days. The results indicated extinct histopathological changes manifested in the deformation of villi, foci of leukocytic infiltration in the core of villi, and hyperplasia of goblet cells. Histochemical examination (Alcian blue and Periodic acid–Schiff stain) revealed a strong positive reaction of goblet cells and an increase in their number in all treated groups. In addition, the immunohistochemical investigation revealed the immunoreactivity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. Furthermore, electron microscopic alternations were represented by the deformation of nuclei, destruction of microvilli, and deposition of lipid droplets. Collectively, the present findings indicate that treatment with glyphosate results in extensive morphological alternations to the ileal structure of rats of both sexes and that female rats are more affected than male rats are.
In this work, a printed coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed single band antenna based on expanded graphite material is introduced. The proposed antenna is based on a CPW-monopole antenna with a U-shape conductor strip connected with the ground. Expanded graphite, a grade of graphene, is used as a conductor to design the uniplanar antenna over a flexible paper substrate. The antenna is designed for 2.4 GHz applications. The antenna design procedures are discussed. The material preparation and analysis are illustrated. Finally, the antenna fabrication and measurements of the reflection coefficient are discussed. The measured antenna reflection coefficient agrees with the simulated one, ensuring the antenna validity for serving the required applications. The radiation antenna parameters are discussed and simulated results from two-simulation software are included for comparison. The antenna has a simulated gain of 4 dBi and simulated efficiency of around 90% at 2.4 GHz.
Medical students are vulnerable to infection by the coronavirus. Their awareness of the disease is crucial for their safety and for the management of the epidemic by spreading supportive information in their communities. The aim of this study was to assess coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices among Egyptian medical students.
We conducted a cross-sectional study from the beginning of April to June 2020; a total of 439 undergraduate medical students (1st to 6th academic years) were assessed using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 33 questions, including 5 items regarding socio-demographic features, 23 items concerning COVID-19 related knowledge, 2 items regarding attitude, and 3 items related to preventive measures.
We observed an acceptable level of knowledge (74.3%) among the sample studied. Preclinical and female students were significantly more optimistic as 69.1% expected successful control of COVID-19, and 48.9% predicted that Egypt will win the fight against COVID-19. The majority of participants reported wearing a facemask in public places as a preventive measure (56.7%).
Egyptian medical students had an acceptable level of knowledge, positive attitude, and good practices of preventive measures regarding the COVID-19 virus. There is no significant difference in almost all items of knowledge, attitude, and practices in relation to gender or academic grade.
COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a global health crisis. The gut microbiome critically affects the immune system, and some respiratory infections are associated with changes in the gut microbiome; here, we evaluated the role of nutritional and lifestyle habits that modulate gut microbiota on COVID-19 outcomes in a longitudinal cohort study that included 200 patients infected with COVID-19. Of these, 122 cases were mild and seventy-eight were moderate, according to WHO classification. After detailed explanation by a consultant in clinical nutrition, participants responded to a written questionnaire on daily sugar, prebiotic intake in food, sleeping hours, exercise duration and antibiotic prescription, during the past 1 year before infection. Daily consumption of prebiotic-containing foods, less sugar, regular exercise, adequate sleep and fewer antibiotic prescriptions led to a milder disease and rapid virus clearance. Additionally, data on these factors were compiled into a single score, the ESSAP score (Exercise, Sugar consumption, Sleeping hours, Antibiotics taken, and Prebiotics consumption; 0–11 points), median ESSAP score was 5 for both mild and moderate cases; however, the range was 4–8 in mild cases, but 1–6 in moderate (P = 0·001, OR: 4·2, 95 % CI 1·9, 9·1); our results showed a negative correlation between regular consumption of yogurt containing probiotics and disease severity (P = 0·007, OR: 1·6, 95 % CI 1·1, 2·1). Mild COVID-19 disease was associated with 10–20 min of daily exercise (P = 0·016), sleeping at least 8 h daily, prescribed antibiotics less than 5 times per year (P = 0·077) and ate plenty of prebiotic-containing food.
This study aimed to compare the expression of genes regulating follicles development, survival and steroid hormones secretion in oocytes and granulosa cells (GCs) and study the correlation between their expression and follicular fluid (FF) levels of progesterone (P4) in pregnant and non-pregnant camels. In total, 138 ovarian pairs from slaughtered camels were used. Gene expression and hormonal assay were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The obtained results revealed that the number of follicles (3–8 mm) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. P4 level in the FF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. However, no significant (P > 0.05) difference was noticed in the oestradiol (E2) level. STAR, PTEN, IGF1 and BCL2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in GCs and significantly lower in oocytes of pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. However, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) mRNA level was significantly lower in GCs and oocytes, and the BMP15 mRNA level was significantly lower in oocytes of pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. P4 level in FF was positively correlated with STAR, PTEN, IGF1 and BCL2 mRNA levels in GCs and negatively correlated with BMP15 mRNA levels in oocytes and FSHR mRNA levels in GCs and oocytes of pregnant camels. It could be concluded that pregnancy-induced variations in oocytes and GC expression of BMP15, IGF1, FSHR, STAR, BCL2, and PTEN genes might be associated with a decrease in the number of follicles and an increase in the FF level of P4.
In this paper, a compact 4-port band-notched multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) antenna with asymmetric coplanar strip (ACS) feed is presented for ultra-wide band (UWB) applications. The MIMO antenna is comprised of four semi-elliptical radiators with ACS feed for UWB applications and it is printed on inexpensive FR4 substrate of size 48 × 52 mm2 with ɛr = 4.4 and 1.6 mm height. The impedance characteristics of the suggested MIMO antenna ranges from 2.7 to 11 GHz with a band-notched behavior from 3 to 4 GHz to reduce the interception with WiMAX applications, and the isolation level over the achieved band is more than 20 dB between any two adjacent elements. Moreover, the radiation pattern of the proposed UWB antenna is almost omnidirectional with an average realized gain of 3.5 dBi over the entire achieved frequency band. The proposed ACS-fed antenna is confirmed by fabricating and measuring it's impedance and radiation characteristics. Finally, good consistency between simulation and measured outcomes is obtained confirming the validity of the MIMO antenna for real-life UWB wireless systems.
Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour in children. It is usually associated with tuberous sclerosis complex caused by mutations in TSC-1 or TSC-2 genes. This tumour typically regresses by unknown mechanisms; however, it may cause inflow or outflow obstruction that necessitates urgent surgery. Here we investigate the clinical features and the genetic analysis of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex presenting with large rhabdomyoma tumours. We also investigate the potential role of autophagy and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of this tumour.
All the patients with cardiac rhabdomyoma referred to Aswan Heart Centre from 2010 to 2018 were included in this study. Sanger sequencing was performed for coding exons and the flanking intronic regions of TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Histopathological evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting were performed with P62, LC3b, caspase3, and caspase7, to evaluate autophagic and apoptotic signaling.
Five patients were included and had the clinical features of tuberous sclerosis complex. Three patients, who were having obstructive tumours, were found to have pathogenic mutations in TSC-2. The expression of two autophagic markers, P62 and LC3b, and two apoptotic markers, caspase3 and caspase7, were increased in the tumour cells compared to normal surrounding myocardial tissue.
All the patients with rhabdomyoma were diagnosed to have tuberous sclerosis complex. The patients who had pathogenic mutations in the TSC-2 gene had a severe disease form necessitating urgent intervention. We also demonstrate the potential role of autophagy and apoptosis as a possible mechanism for tumourigenesis and regression. Future studies will help in designing personalised treatment for cardiac rhabdomyoma.
Background: This study explores the perspectives of healthcare workers on the healthcare-associated infection (HAI) and infection control measures in a tertiary-care unit, through a self-administered questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, and reflexive sessions based on video-recorded sterile procedures performed in respondents’ work contexts. Video reflexive ethnography (VRE) is a method that provides feedback to medical practitioners through reflection analysis, whereby practitioners identify problems and find solutions. Methods: Quantitative questionnaire data were used to assess the knowledge of HAI among 50 healthcare workers and their attitude toward practice of infection control measures. Semistructured interviews based on an interview guide were used to collect qualitative data from 25 doctors and nurses. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim immediately. Also, routine sterile procedures in the wards and intensive care unit were video recorded, and the footage was discussed by the infection control team and the personnel involved in the videos. This discussion was video recorded and transcribed. Both interview data and reflexive discussion of video-graph were analyzed using a thematic analysis. The quantitative data were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: The quantitative data revealed no difference in the knowledge, attitude, and practice scores used to evaluate the infection control practices among the healthcare workers. We identified 4 themes from the qualitative data: (1) knowledge of HAI and infection control, (2) infection control measures in practice, (3) the shortfall in infection control measures and HAI, and (4) required implementation. Although the qualitative data indicated that the participants had excellent compliance with hand hygiene and personal protective equipment (PPE) use, the VRE and reflective sessions indicated otherwise. Some astounding lapses were revealed, like failure to engage in boundary maintenance between sterile and nonsterile areas, failure to observe proper hand hygiene measures, and use of traditional hijab face covers (used in an unsterile environment as well) instead of surgical masks. These findings demonstrate the advantage of combining VRE with qualitative and quantitative methodology to deduct the lapses in the practice of infection control among healthcare workers. Conclusions: Introduction of training programs focused on HAI and infection control measures in the educational system will help better inform medical and nursing students. Live video demonstrations of appropriate infection control practices during sterile procedures would be highly beneficial to educate the healthcare workers on correct infection control practices. Lapses in the use of PPE can be a possible reason for the outbreak of MERS-CoV, an endemic disease, in this part of Saudi Arabia.
African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) affects the livestock of 12.3 million Somalis and constrains their development and wellbeing. There is missing data on AAT in the country after the civil war of the 1990s. Therefore, this study has aimed to assess the prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. in 614 blood samples from cattle (n = 202), goats (n = 206) and sheep (n = 206) in Afgoye and Jowhar districts, Somalia using parasitological and molecular methods. Twenty-one out of 614 (3.4%; 95% CI: 2.1–5.2%) and 101/614 (16.4%; 95% CI: 13.6–19.6%) ruminants were positive for Trypanosoma spp. by buffy coat technique (BCT) and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Using ITS1-PCR, the highest prevalence was observed in cattle (23.8%; 95% CI: 18.4–30.1%) followed by goats (17.5%; 95% CI: 12.9–23.3%) and sheep (8.3%; 95% CI: 5.1–12.9%). A total of 74/101 (73.3%; 95% CI: 63.5–81.6%) ruminants were shown coinfection with at least two Trypanosome species. The four T. brucei-positive samples have tested negative for T. b. rhodesiense, by the human-serum-resistance-associated-PCR. Trypanosoma evansi, T. godfreyi, T. vivax, T. brucei, T. simiae and T. congolense were the Trypanosoma species found in this study. This is the first study on the molecular detection of Trypanosoma sp. in ruminants in Somalia. Further investigations and control measures are needed to manage Trypanosomiasis spreading in the country. Studies should also focus on the detection of T. b. rhodesiense in the country.
Numerous commentators have noted a historic ambivalence between religion and psychiatry. However, a growing body of evidence indicates an association between mental health and various religious activities, both private and public. As such, there are growing calls for greater religious sensitivity among mental health clinicians, to help unlock the potentially healing aspects of religiosity. So far, most literature from English-speaking countries has focused on Christianity and mental health, with little attention paid to Muslim mental health. This is the fastest growing religion in English-speaking countries, and the mental health of Muslims in these countries is under-researched. As such, the present paper summarises new directions in the mental health and religion literature, with a focus on the mental health of Muslims in English-speaking countries.
This study aimed to: (i) characterize cultured granulosa cells (GCs) from different follicle sizes morphologically and molecularly; and (ii) select a suitable model according to follicular size that maintained GC function during culture. Buffalo ovaries were collected from a slaughterhouse and follicles were classified morphologically into: first group ≤ 4 mm, second group 5–8 mm, third group 9–15 mm and fourth group 16–20 mm diameter. GC pellets were divided into two portions. The first portion served as the control fresh pellet, and the secondwas used for 1 week for GC culture. Total RNA was isolated, and qRT-PCR was performed to test for follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), cytochrome P450 19 (CYP19), luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase (CASP3), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and phospholipase A2 group III (PLA2G3) mRNAs. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels in the culture supernatant and in follicular fluids were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Basic DMEM-F12 medium maintained the morphological appearance of cultured GCs. The relative abundance of FSHR, CYP19, and LHCGR mRNAs was 0.001 ≤ P ≤ 0.01 and decreased at the end of culture compared with the fresh pellet. There was a fine balance between expression patterns of the proliferation marker gene (PCNA) and the proapoptotic marker gene (CASP3). AMH mRNA was significantly increased (P < 0.001) in cultured GCs from small follicles, while cultured GCs from other three categories (5–8 mm, 9–15 mm and 16–20 mm) showed a clear reduction (P < 0.001). Interestingly, the relative abundance of PLA2G3 mRNA was significantly (P < 0.001) increased in all cultured GCs. E2 and P4 concentrations were significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in all cultured groups. Primary cultured GCs from small follicles could be a good model for better understanding follicular development in Egyptian buffaloes.
This forum contributes to debates on migration, displacement, and place-making in contemporary sub-Saharan Africa. We bring together an interdisciplinary group of scholars to move the existing literature beyond the dominant focus on the causes of displacement to a rich and granular exploration of its consequences. The forum focuses on Somali refugees and migrants for two reasons. First, Somalia is one of the largest refugee-producing countries in the world. Second, depending on the host states in which they find themselves, Somali migrants and refugees can encounter many different fates, ranging from living in refugee camps to migrating to other countries in sub-Saharan Africa to a small minority being resettled in countries of the global north. These varied circumstances make it possible to study strategies of place-making among Somali communities from several different perspectives. A central theme of this forum is to highlight the agency of migrants and refugees and to emphasize the fact that these groups are more than mere victims of their circumstances. The articles in this volume will be of interest to scholars of African studies, anthropology, comparative politics, migration studies, peace studies, and Somali studies.
This chapter addresses key questions about the basis of cancer susceptibility in African people, as well as the uniqueness of the population genetics and genotype–phenotype relationship that resulted during social transition. Social transition encompasses the change of lifestyle from a rural subsistence one into an urban market-oriented, technology dependent, and predominantly sedentary mode of life, as well as changes that occur in the population genetics as a result of changes from ethnically defined structured populations into panmictic populations of an urban nature, as currently seen in megacities. Although humans passed through several periods of transition in history, the current one is the most profound.
The aim of this study was to examine the gender differential effects of eating habits and physical activity on overweight and obesity among school-aged adolescents in Bangladesh. Nationally representative data extracted from the 2014 Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) were utilized. The survey collected information related to physical and mental health from 2989 school-aged adolescents in Bangladesh. An exploratory data analysis and multivariate logistic regression model were employed in this study. Female adolescents were at a lower risk of being overweight or obese (AOR=0.573) than males, with a prevalence of 7.4% (males: 9.9%). The results showed that high consumption of vegetables (both: AOR=0.454; males: AOR=0.504; females: AOR=0.432), high soft drink consumption (both: AOR=2.357; males: AOR=2.929; females: AOR=1.677), high fast food consumption (both: AOR=2.777; males: AOR=6.064; females: AOR=1.695), sleep disturbance (both: AOR=0.675; males: AOR=0.590; females: AOR=0.555) and regular walking or cycling to school (both: AOR=0.472; males: AOR=0.430; females: AOR=0.557) were vital influencing factors for being overweight or obese among adolescents for both sexes. Sedentary activities during leisure time were also identified as significant predictors of being overweight or obese for males. Regular fruit and vegetable consumption, the avoidance of soft drinks and fast food, an increase in vigorous physical activity, regular attendance at physical education classes and fewer sedentary leisure time activities could all help reduce the risk of being overweight or obese for both sexes.
Adenoid hypertrophy is a common cause of upper airway obstruction, and adenoidectomy is one of the most frequently performed operations in children. Topical nasal steroids can act directly on nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue to decrease its reactive inflammatory changes and potentially reduce its size.
To study the light microscopic changes in adenoidal lymphoid tissue after one month of topical steroid use.
Twenty-six children with adenoid hypertrophy grade 3 scheduled for adenoidectomy were randomly divided into two equal groups: one group received mometasone furoate aqueous nasal spray (Nasonex) 100 mcg/day for four weeks, and a control group received nasal normal saline 0.9 per cent for four weeks. The removed adenoids were examined histopathologically.
Adenoidal tissue from the mometasone group had less reactive germinal centres and less spongiosis compared to the control group. The latter showed proliferating, reactive, variable sized and shaped lymphoid follicles, with congested blood vessels in the interfollicular areas.
The use of intranasal mometasone furoate aqueous nasal spray (Nasonex) for one month reduced adenoidal tissue reactive cellular changes and its vascularity. This is, however, a pilot study; a longer treatment period is needed to assess the effect of treatment on adenoidal size.