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The vector role of Aedes aegypti for viral diseases including dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever makes it imperative for its proper control. Despite various adopted control strategies, genetic control measures have been recently focused against this vector. CRISPR Cas9 system is a recent and most efficient gene editing tool to target the sex determination pathway genes in Ae. aegypti. In the present study, CRISPR Cas9 system was used to knockout Ae. aegypti doublesex (Aaedsx) and Ae. aegypti sexlethal (AaeSxl) genes in Ae. aegypti embryos. The injection mixes with Cas9 protein (333 ng ul−1) and gRNAs (each at 100 ng ul−1) were injected into eggs. Injected eggs were allowed to hatch at 26 ± 1°C, 60 ± 10% RH. The survival and mortality rate was recorded in knockout Aaedsx and AaeSxl. The results revealed that knockout produced low survival and high mortality. A significant percentage of eggs (38.33%) did not hatch as compared to control groups (P value 0.00). Highest larval mortality (11.66%) was found in the knockout of Aaedsx female isoform, whereas, the emergence of only male adults also showed that the knockout of Aaedsx (female isoform) does not produce male lethality. The survival (3.33%) of knockout for AaeSxl eggs to the normal adults suggested further study to investigate AaeSxl as an efficient upstream of Aaedsx to target for sex transformation in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.
The formation mechanism of linear and isopropyl cyanide (hereafter n-PrCN and i-PrCN, respectively) in the interstellar medium (ISM) has been proposed from the reaction between some previously detected small cyanides/cyanide radicals and hydrocarbons/hydrocarbon radicals. n-PrCN and i-PrCN are nitriles therefore, they can be precursors of amino acids via Strecker synthesis. The chemistry of i-PrCN is especially important since it is the first and only branched molecule in ISM, hence, it could be a precursor of branched amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, etc. Therefore, both n-PrCN and i-PrCN have significant astrobiological importance. To study the formation of n-PrCN and i-PrCN in ISM, quantum chemical calculations have been performed using density functional theory at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,p)//M062X/6-311+G(2d,p) level. All the proposed reactions have been studied in the gas phase and the interstellar water ice. It is found that reactions of small cyanide with hydrocarbon radicals result in the formation of either large cyanide radicals or ethyl and vinyl cyanide, both of which are very important prebiotic interstellar species. They subsequently react with the radicals CH2 and CH3 to yield n-PrCN and i-PrCN. The proposed reactions are efficient in the hot cores of SgrB2 (N) (where both n-PrCN and i-PrCN were detected) due to either being barrierless or due to the presence of a permeable entrance barrier. However, the formation of n-PrCN and i-PrCN from the ethyl and vinyl cyanide always has an entrance barrier impermeable in the dark cloud; therefore, our proposed pathways are inefficient in the deep regions of molecular clouds. It is also observed that ethyl and vinyl cyanide serve as direct precursors to n-PrCN and i-PrCN and their abundance in ISM is directly related to the abundance of both isomers of propyl cyanide in ISM. In all the cases, reactions in the ice have smaller barriers compared to their gas-phase counterparts.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.
In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.
From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.
A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.
This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.
Virtual sensors (software abstractions to support programming of sensor use) have been shown to have software-engineering benefits. A sensor integration system is required to support them. We examine the general requirements of such systems and consider the
important design requirements. An idealised architecture, ViSIAr, is proposed to serve as a framework for designing and constructing them. Illustrative examples are provided.
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