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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Using the covariate-rich Veteran Health Administration data, estimate the association between Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) use and severe COVID-19, rigorously adjusting for confounding using propensity score (PS)-weighting. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We assembled a national retrospective cohort of United States veterans who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, with information on 33 covariates including comorbidity diagnoses, lab values, and medications. Current outpatient PPI use was compared to non-use (two or more fills and pills on hand at admission vs no PPI prescription fill in prior year). The primary composite outcome was mechanical ventilation use or death within 60 days; the secondary composite outcome included ICU admission. PS-weighting mimicked a 1:1 matching cohort, allowing inclusion of all patients while achieving good covariate balance. The weighted cohort was analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our analytic cohort included 97,674 veterans with SARS-CoV-2 testing, of whom 14,958 (15.3%) tested positive (6,262 [41.9%] current PPI-users, 8,696 [58.1%] non-users). After weighting, all covariates were well-balanced with standardized mean differences less than a threshold of 0.1. Prior to PS-weighting (no covariate adjustment), we observed higher odds of the primary (9.3% vs 7.5%; OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.43) and secondary (25.8% vs 21.4%; OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.18-1.37) outcomes among PPI users vs non-users. After PS-weighting, PPI use vs non-use was not associated with the primary (8.2% vs 8.0%; OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.91-1.16) or secondary (23.4% vs 22.9%;OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.95-1.12) outcomes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The associations between PPI use and severe COVID-19 outcomes that have been previously reported may be due to limitations in the covariates available for adjustment. With respect to COVID-19, our robust PS-weighted analysis provides patients and providers with further evidence for PPI safety.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: African-Americans have a 3-fold higher risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) compared to Whites due in part to APOL1 risk alleles. Whether resistant hypertension (RH) magnifies the risk of ESKD among African Americans beyond APOL1 is not known. We examined the interaction between RH and race on ESKD risk and the independent effect of RH beyond APOL1. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We designed a retrospective cohort of 240,038 veterans with HTN, enrolled in the Million Veteran Program with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 ml/min/1.73m2. The primary exposure was incident RH (time-varying). The primary outcome was incident ESKD during a 13.5 year follow up: 2004-2017. Secondary outcomes were myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death. Incident RH was defined as failure to achieve outpatient blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mmHg with 3 antihypertensive drugs, including a thiazide, or use of 4 or more drugs. Poisson models were used to estimate incidence rates and test additive interaction with race and APOL1 genotype. Multivariable Cox models (with Fine-Gray competing-risks models as sensitivity analyses) were used to examine independent effects. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The cohort comprised 235,046 veterans; median age was 60 years; 21% were African-American and 6% were women, with 23,010 incident RH cases observed over a median follow-up time of 10.2 years [interquartile range, 5.6-12.6]. Patients with RH had higher incidence rates [per 1000 person-years] of ESKD (4.5 vs. 1.3), myocardial infarction (6.5 vs. 3.0), stroke (16.4 vs. 7.6) and death (12.0 vs. 6.9) than non-resistant hypertension (NRH). African-Americans with RH had a 2.6-fold higher risk of ESKD compared to African-Americans with NRH; 3-fold the risk of Whites with RH, and 9.6-fold the risk of Whites with NRH [p-interaction<.001]. Among African-Americans, RH was associated with a 2.2-fold (95%CI, 1.86-2.58) higher risk of incident ESKD in models adjusted for APOL1 genotype and in the subset of African-Americans with no APOL1 risk alleles, RH was associated with an adjusted 2.75-fold (95% CI: 2.00-3.50) higher risk of incident ESKD. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: RH was independently associated with a higher risk of ESKD and cardiovascular outcomes, especially among African-Americans. This elevated risk is independent of APOL1 genotype. Interventions that achieve BP targets among patients with RH could curtail the incidence of ESKD and cardiovascular outcomes in this high-risk population. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: None.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The main aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and body mass index (as well as serum leptin) as determinants of peripheral and central insulin sensitivity (IS). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a cross-sectional investigation of 140 nondiabetic participants – 56 with CKD (GFR = 15-59 ml/min/1.73m2) and 94 with normal GFR (≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m2) – recruited as part of the relationship of insulin sensitivity in kidney disease and vascular health (RISKD) study. Peripheral (skeletal muscle) and central (hepatic) IS were assessed with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp (HEGC) and homeostasis assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) respectively. Creatinine-based estimated GFR (eGFR) was obtained using the CKD-EPI equation and body mass index (BMI) was computed from baseline weight and height measurements. Linear regression models with robust standard errors (to relax homoscedasticity assumptions) and interaction terms were used to investigate GFR and BMI as predictors of HEGC-derived insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and HOMA-IR. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 53.9 (14.5) years; 50.7% were female and 36.7% were African-American. Compared to controls, CKD patients had significantly lower mean (SD) ISI [5.4 (3.2) vs. 3.1 (1.6), p < 0.0001]. Log ISI was positively correlated (r = 0.39, p < 0.0001) with eGFR and inversely correlated (−0.30, p < 0.0001) with BMI and log leptin (−0.42, p < 0.0001). In multivariable models adjusted for age, sex and race, a 10 ml/min/1.73m2 lower eGFR was associated with a greater decrease in ISI among non-obese (0.48; 95% CI: −0.25, −0.70) compared to obese participants (−0.18; 95% CI: −0.02, −0.35) (p-interaction = 0.04). Patients with low eGFR (in particular, the lower margin of the CKD stage 3 range, 30ml/min) had lower ISI even with BMI within normal range (Figure 1a). At higher eGFR, BMI had a greater impact on ISI. P-interaction = 0.046, for differential BMI effects at lower vs. higher eGFR. Log HOMA-IR was inversely correlated with eGFR (r = - 0.49, p < 0.0001) and positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.52, p < 0.0001) and log leptin (0.46, p < 0.0001). HOMA-IR was lower for persons with higher GFR compared to lower GFR, at any BMI value. For example, at a BMI of 30 and a GFR of 120, HOMA-IR was 1.2 compared to 4.8 at a GFR of 30 (Figure 1b). Also, persons with high GFR had low HOMA-IR even with BMI in the obese range. BMI had a greater effect on HOMA-IR at lower eGFR. P-interaction = 0.005, for differential BMI effects at lower vs. higher eGFR. Similar findings were obtained when using log leptin in lieu of BMI in models for ISI and HOMA-IR. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Measures of adiposity (BMI and leptin) and GFR were independently predictive of insulin sensitivity (IS) but the magnitude of the effect of BMI (or leptin) on IS varied significantly across GFR levels and type of IS (peripheral versus central). The effect of BMI on central IS (HOMA-IR) was more pronounced at lower GFR with small changes in BMI translating into greater variations in IS. Conversely, at low GFR, peripheral IS (ISI) is less affected by BMI. Persons with GFR at the lower margin of the CKD stage 3 range were significantly insulin resistant (low ISI) regardless of their BMI. More studies are required to further elucidate these interaction patterns for central and peripheral IS.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between measures of adiposity and FGF-23 in a sample of patients with CKD stages 3-4. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study was a clinic-based cross-sectional investigation of 71 CKD patients who underwent body composition and anthropometric assessments as part of the relationship of insulin sensitivity in kidney disease and vascular health (RISKD) study. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were used to measure total fat mass and body mass index (BMI) was computed using baseline weight and height measurements. Biomarkers included serum FGF-23 (C-terminal), serum leptin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), serum triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol. Creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was computed using the CKD-EPI equation. Multiple linear regression with robust standard errors was used to investigate the relationship between FGF2-3 and measures of adiposity (BMI, total fat mass and serum leptin). Log-transformation was performed for variables (FGF-23, hsCRP and serum lipids) with considerable skewness. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The median age of the study participants was 68 (IQR: 60, 73) years; 26% were female and 23% were African-American. Median eGFR was 46.9 ml/min/1.73m2 (IQR: 41.9, 52.8), median BMI was 31 kg/m2 (IQR: 27, 35). Log FGF-23 had a significant positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.27, p = 0.02), total fat mass (r = 0.30, p = 0.01) and serum leptin (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001). After full adjustment for age, sex, race, eGFR, log hsCRP, log HDL and log triglycerides, a 50% increase in FGF-23 was associated with a 1 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.1, 1.9; p = 0.03] increase in BMI, a 2.5 kg [95% CI: 0.2, 4.8; p = 0.03] increase in total fat mass and a 6.7 ng/mL [95% CI: 1.0, 12.4; p = 0.02] increase in serum leptin. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this sample of patients with moderate-to-severe CKD, we found a significant independent association between higher FGF-23 levels and higher adiposity (BMI, total fat mass and the pro-atherogenic adipocytokine, leptin). The underlying causes and the implications of these associations − particularly in bone and vascular health − need to be further investigated.
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