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The effect of hormonal therapy has been extensively studied in women. However, similar data on male-to-female (MTF) transgenders, another important population that receives hormonal therapy is lacking. Existing studies in MTF transgenders are skewed toward mental health and health-harming behaviors while few have focused on chronic health conditions. Our study aims to review the existing data on stroke in MTF transgenders and perform a quantitative analysis on the frequency of this condition in this special population.
PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Web of Science were systematically searched for studies that reported data on the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases in MTF transgenders. We reported the hormonal regimens, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of stroke in MTF transgenders. A meta-analysis of proportions was performed by the random-effects model to compute for the frequency of cerebrovascular events in MTF transgenders.
Fourteen studies were included in the qualitative analysis while five studies were included in the quantitative analysis. A total of 109 MTF transgenders (Mean 14; range 1–53) suffered a cerebrovascular event. Random-effect modeling analysis showed an overall estimated frequency of 2% for cerebrovascular events in transgenders with a moderate degree of heterogeneity (I2 = 62%).
Hormonal therapy in MTF transgenders may confer cardiovascular risks in this population. However, more population-based studies that include clinical characteristics and outcomes of chronic health diseases in MTF transgenders are warranted. Such studies may be crucial in directing future guidelines on the health care and management of MTF transgenders.
Growing evidence showed that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection may present with neurological manifestations. This review aimed to determine the neurological manifestations and complications in COVID-19.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis that included cohort and case series/reports involving a population of patients confirmed with COVID-19 infection and their neurologic manifestations. We searched the following electronic databases until April 18, 2020: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and World Health Organization database (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020180658).
From 403 articles identified, 49 studies involving a total of 6,335 confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. The random-effects modeling analysis for each neurological symptom showed the following proportional point estimates with 95% confidence intervals: “headache” (0.12; 0.10–0.14; I2 = 77%), “dizziness” (0.08; 0.05–0.12; I2 = 82%), “headache and dizziness” (0.09; 0.06–0.13; I2 = 0%), “nausea” (0.07; 0.04–0.11; I2 = 79%), “vomiting” (0.05; 0.03–0.08; I2 = 74%), “nausea and vomiting” (0.06; 0.03–0.11; I2 = 83%), “confusion” (0.05; 0.02–0.14; I2 = 86%), and “myalgia” (0.21; 0.18–0.25; I2 = 85%). The most common neurological complication associated with COVID-19 infection was vascular disorders (n = 23); other associated conditions were encephalopathy (n = 3), encephalitis (n = 1), oculomotor nerve palsy (n = 1), isolated sudden-onset anosmia (n = 1), Guillain–Barré syndrome (n = 1), and Miller–Fisher syndrome (n = 2). Most patients with neurological complications survived (n = 14); a considerable number of patients died (n = 7); and the rest had unclear outcomes (n = 12).
This review revealed that neurologic involvement may manifest in COVID-19 infection. What has initially been thought of as a primarily respiratory illness has evolved into a wide-ranging multi-organ disease.
Intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IVtPA) is a proven treatment for acute ischemic stroke; however, diabetes mellitus (DM) and previous cerebral infarction (PCI) were considered relative contraindications for thrombolysis within the 3–4.5 h period.
The study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of IVtPA among diabetic patients with PCI presenting with acute ischemic stroke.
Studies which evaluated the outcome of IVtPA in terms of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), functional outcome in modified Rankin scale, and death among diabetic patients with PCI presenting with acute ischemic stroke within the 3–4.5 h period were systematically searched until July 2019. Screening and eligibility criteria were applied. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to compare measures of treatment effect. Mantel–Haenszel method and random-effects model were also employed.
Four registry-based studies with a total of 44,572 patients were included for quantitative synthesis. Giving IVtPA among DM+/PCI+ patients did not result in significantly increased rate of sICH (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88, 1.36) compared to No DM+/PCI+ patients. However, there was significantly higher mortality (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.60, 2.06) in the DM+/PCI+ group. Conversely, among those who survived, the DM+/PCI+ patients were more functionally independent at 3 months (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61, 0.94).
Limited evidence suggests that thrombolysis in DM+/PCI+ patients does not result in significantly higher incidence of sICH and may improve functional independence. However, the significantly higher mortality in this group warrants an assessment of the individualized risk–benefit ratio in the use of IVtPA.
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