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To evaluate the discriminative ability of hyperlactataemia for early morbidity and mortality in neonates with CHD following cardiac surgery.
Retrospective, observational study of neonates who underwent cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass at a tertiary care children’s hospital from June 2015 to June 2019. The primary predictor was lactate. The primary composite outcome was defined as ≥1 of the following: cardiac arrest or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within 72 hours or 30-day mortality post-operatively. The secondary outcome was the presence of major residual lesions, according to the Technical Performance Score.
Of 432 neonates, 28 (6.5%) sustained the composite outcome. On univariate analysis, peak lactate within 48 hours, increase in lactate from ICU admission through 12 hours, and single ventricle physiology were significantly associated with the composite outcome. The peak lactate occurred at a median of 2.9 hours (interquartile range: 1, 35) before the event. Through multi-variable analysis, a multi-variable risk algorithm was created. Predicted probabilities demonstrated an increasing risk based on single ventricle status and delta lactate, ranging from 1.8% (95% CI: 0.9, 3.9) to 52.4% (95% CI: 32.4, 71.7). The model had good discriminative ability for the composite outcome on receiver operating characteristic analysis (area under the curve = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.89). Moreover, a peak lactate of 7.3 mmol/l or greater was significantly associated with the presence of a major residual lesion (odds ratios: 5.16, 95% CI: 3.01, 8.87).
We present a simple, two-variable model, including delta lactate in the immediate post-operative period and single ventricle status, to prognosticate the risk of early morbidity and mortality in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery for potential intervention.
A superior cavopulmonary connection is commonly performed before the Fontan procedure in patients with a functionally univentricular heart. Data are limited regarding associations between a prior superior cavopulmonary connection and functional and ventricular performance late after the Fontan procedure.
We compared characteristics of those with and without prior superior cavopulmonary connection among 546 subjects enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional Study. We further compared different superior cavopulmonary connection techniques: bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (n equals 229), bilateral bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (n equals 39), and hemi-Fontan (n equals 114).
A prior superior cavopulmonary connection was performed in 408 subjects (75%); the proportion differed by year of Fontan surgery and centre (p-value less than 0.0001 for each). The average age at Fontan was similar, 3.5 years in those with superior cavopulmonary connection versus 3.2 years in those without (p-value equals 0.4). The type of superior cavopulmonary connection varied by site (p-value less than 0.001) and was related to the type of Fontan procedure. Exercise performance, echocardiographic variables, and predominant rhythm did not differ by superior cavopulmonary connection status or among superior cavopulmonary connection types. Using a test of interaction, findings did not vary according to an underlying diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
After controlling for subject and era factors, most long-term outcomes in subjects with a prior superior cavopulmonary connection did not differ substantially from those without this procedure. The type of superior cavopulmonary connection varied significantly by centre, but late outcomes were similar.
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