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We present the pulse arrival times and high-precision dispersion measure estimates for 14 millisecond pulsars observed simultaneously in the 300
500 MHz and 1260
1460 MHz frequency bands using the upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. The data spans over a baseline of 3.5 years (2018-2021), and is the first official data release made available by the Indian Pulsar Timing Array collaboration. This data release presents a unique opportunity for investigating the interstellar medium effects at low radio frequencies and their impact on the timing precision of pulsar timing array experiments. In addition to the dispersion measure time series and pulse arrival times obtained using both narrowband and wideband timing techniques, we also present the dispersion measure structure function analysis for selected pulsars. Our ongoing investigations regarding the frequency dependence of dispersion measures have been discussed. Based on the preliminary analysis for five millisecond pulsars, we do not find any conclusive evidence of chromaticity in dispersion measures. Data from regular simultaneous two-frequency observations are presented for the first time in this work. This distinctive feature leads us to the highest precision dispersion measure estimates obtained so far for a subset of our sample. Simultaneous multi-band upgraded Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations in 300
500 MHz and 1260
1460 MHz are crucial for high-precision dispersion measure estimation and for the prospect of expanding the overall frequency coverage upon the combination of data from the various Pulsar Timing Array consortia in the near future. Parts of the data presented in this work are expected to be incorporated into the upcoming third data release of the International Pulsar Timing Array.
Nutritional deficiencies are commonplace in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and recent research has indicated that nutritional factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 disease. Although nutritional deficiencies are unlikely to be the primary causative factor in disease progression, they may contribute to cognitive dysfunction, neurologic abnormalities, mood disturbance, and immune dysregulation associated with HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, deficiencies of specific micronutrients have been associated with increased risk of HIV-1–associated mortality. This article will briefly summarize the role of macronutrient deficiency, the interactions of specific micronutrient deficiencies with neuropsychiatrie functioning, and the role of these factors in HIV-1 disease progression. Since recent research has shown that normalization of many nutritional deficits and supplementation beyond normal levels are associated with improvements in neuropsychiatrie functioning, potential treatment implications will also be discussed.
Different lines of evidence suggest that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is complicated by a variety of adverse effects on neuroendocrine systems. Soon after the discovery of HIV-1, reports began to appear suggesting that a number of neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine activities were negatively impacted by this infection. In 1987 it was observed that fine-needle aspiration of the lung in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome resulted in syncopal reactions. Subsequently, an abnormality in the autonomic nervous system was reported in these patients. However, investigations in this area have remained limited due to the assumption that HIV-1–mediated activation of various endocrine systems was related to the major life stressor of living with a fatal disease. Evidence accumulated over the years has indicated, instead, that there are various other mechanisms in addition to life stressors that also play an important role in negatively impacting the neuroendocrine systems in this infection. This article examines various developments that have taken place in this area in order to provide avenues for future research.
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