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To assess association of pharmacist gender with acceptance of antibiotic stewardship recommendations.
A retrospective evaluation of the Reducing Overuse of Antibiotics at Discharge (ROAD) Home intervention.
The study was conducted from May to October 2019 in a single academic medical center.
The study included patients receiving antibiotics on a hospitalist service who were nearing discharge.
During the intervention, clinical pharmacists (none who had specialist postgraduate infectious disease residency training) reviewed patients on antibiotics and led an antibiotic timeout (ie, structured conversation) prior to discharge to improve discharge antibiotic prescribing. We assessed the association of pharmacist gender with acceptance of timeout recommendations by hospitalists using logistic regression controlling for patient characteristics.
Over 6 months, pharmacists conducted 295 timeouts: 158 timeouts (53.6%) were conducted by 12 women, 137 (46.4%) were conducted by 8 men. Pharmacists recommended an antibiotic change in 82 timeouts (27.8%), of which 51 (62.2%) were accepted. Compared to male pharmacists, female pharmacists were less likely to recommend a discharge antibiotic change: 30 (19.0%) of 158 versus 52 (38.0%) of 137 (P < .001). Female pharmacists were also less likely to have a recommendation accepted: 10 (33.3%) of 30 versus 41 (8.8%) of 52 (P < .001). Thus, timeouts conducted by female versus male pharmacists were less likely to result in an antibiotic change: 10 (6.3%) of 158 versus 41 (29.9%) of 137 (P < .001). After adjustments, pharmacist gender remained significantly associated with whether recommended changes were accepted (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.10; 95%confidence interval [CI], 0.03–0.36 for female versus male pharmacists).
Antibiotic stewardship recommendations made by female clinical pharmacists were less likely to be accepted by hospitalists. Gender bias may play a role in the acceptance of clinical pharmacist recommendations, which could affect patient care and outcomes.
Background: Clinical pharmacists are a critical part of antibiotic stewardship. Stewardship often relies on relationships and persuasion, which may be affected by gender bias. Thus, we aimed to assess the association of sex with the acceptance of antibiotic stewardship recommendations. Methods: Between May and October 2019, medicine pharmacists at single hospital reviewed patients on antibiotics and–when a discharge was anticipated–led an antibiotic discussion (or “timeout”) prior to discharge. To explore differences in antibiotic timeout effectiveness by gender, we assessed the association of pharmacist sex with suggestion and acceptance of antibiotic changes using logistic regression controlling for patient characteristics. We also assessed whether hospitalist sex was associated with or moderated the effect of pharmacist sex on acceptance of timeout recommendations. Results: Between May 1, 2019, and October 31, 2019, pharmacists conducted 295 timeouts (patient characteristics in Fig. 1). Overall, 54% of timeouts were conducted by 12 female pharmacists and the remaining 46% were conducted by 8 male pharmacists. Overall, 82 (29%) of 295 timeouts resulted in a pharmacist recommending an antibiotic change, and male pharmacists were more likely to recommend a change: 52 (38%) of 137 versus 30 (19%) 158 (P Conclusions: In this discharge antibiotic intervention, timeouts conducted by women were less likely to result in an antibiotic change than those conducted by men. The difference in effectiveness resulted both from female pharmacists being less likely to recommend a change and from hospitalists being less likely to accept recommendations from a female pharmacist. These findings suggest that gender bias may play a role acceptance of antibiotic stewardship recommendations, which could affect antibiotic use, pharmacist job satisfaction, and patient outcomes.
This retrospective study was conducted to determine whether the number of peripherally inserted central-catheter lumens affected the rate of central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in adult patients with acute leukemia. The results show that CLABSI rates were not significantly different between patients with triple-lumen or double-lumen PICCs (22.1% vs 23.4%; P = .827).
To evaluate whether incorporating mandatory prior authorization for Clostridioides difficile testing into antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist workflow could reduce testing in patients with alternative etiologies for diarrhea.
Single center, quasi-experimental before-and-after study.
Tertiary-care, academic medical center in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Adult and pediatric patients admitted between September 11, 2019 and December 10, 2019 were included if they had an order placed for 1 of the following: (1) C. difficile enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in patients hospitalized >72 hours and received laxatives, oral contrast, or initiated tube feeds within the prior 48 hours, (2) repeat molecular multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GIPAN) testing, or (3) GIPAN testing in patients hospitalized >72 hours.
A best-practice alert prompting prior authorization by the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) for EIA or GIPAN testing was implemented. Approval required the provider to page the ASP pharmacist and discuss rationale for testing. The provider could not proceed with the order if ASP approval was not obtained.
An average of 2.5 requests per day were received over the 3-month intervention period. The weekly rate of EIA and GIPAN orders per 1,000 patient days decreased significantly from 6.05 ± 0.94 to 4.87 ± 0.78 (IRR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56–0.93; P = .010) and from 1.72 ± 0.37 to 0.89 ± 0.29 (IRR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37–0.77; P = .001), respectively.
We identified an efficient, effective C. difficile and GIPAN diagnostic stewardship approval model.
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