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Oblique-angle deposition is used to fabricate indium tin oxide (ITO) optical coatings with a porous, columnar nanostructure. Nanostructured ITO layers with a reduced refractive index are then incorporated into antireflection coating (ARC) structures with a step-graded refractive index design, enabling increased transmittance into an underlying semiconductor over a wide range of wavelengths of interest for photovoltaic applications. Low-refractive index nanostructured ITO coatings can also be combined with metal films to form an omnidirectional reflector (ODR) structure capable of achieving high internal reflectivity over a broad spectrum of wavelengths and a wide range of angles. Such conductive high-performance ODR structures on the back surface of a thin-film solar cell can potentially increase both the current and voltage output by scattering unabsorbed and emitted photons back into the active region of the device.
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