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Although the incidence of hospital-associated respiratory virus infection (HARVI) is well recognized, the risk factors for infection and impact on patient outcomes are not well characterized.
We identified a cohort of all inpatient admissions ≥24 hours duration at a single academic medical center from 2017 to 2020. HARVI were defined as respiratory virus detected in a test ordered after the 95th percentile of the virus-specific incubation period. Risk factors for HARVI were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models of the competing outcomes of HARVI and discharge. The associations between time-varying HARVI status and the rates of ICU admission, discharge, and in-hospital death were estimated using Cox-proportional hazards models in a competing risk framework.
HARVI incidences were 8.8 and 3.0 per 10,000 admission days for pediatric and adult patients, respectively. For adults, congestive heart failure, renal disease, and cancer increased HARVI risk independent of their associations with length of stay. HARVI risk was also elevated for patients admitted in September–June relative to July admissions. For pediatric patients, cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, cancer, medical device dependence, and admission in December increased HARVI risk. Lengths of stay were longer for adults with HARVI compared to those without, and hospital-associated influenza A was associated with increased risk of death. Rates of ICU admission were increased in the 5 days after HARVI identification for adult and pediatric patients. HARVI was not associated with length of stay or death among pediatric patients.
HARVI is associated chronic health conditions and increases morbidity and mortality.
This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplementary materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.
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