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Coronary artery dilation associated with bicuspid/unicuspid aortic valves is described in adults with limited data in children. We aimed to describe the clinical course of children with bicuspid/unicuspid aortic valves and coronary dilation including coronary Z-score changes over time, association of coronary changes with aortic valve anatomy/function, and complications.
Materials and methods:
Institutional databases were searched for children ≤18 years with both bicuspid/unicuspid aortic valves and coronary dilation (1/2006-6/2021). Kawasaki disease and isolated supra-/subvalvar aortic stenosis were excluded. Statistics were descriptive with associations measured by Fisher’s exact test and overlapping 83.7% confidence intervals.
Of 17 children, bicuspid/unicuspid aortic valve was diagnosed at birth in 14 (82%). Median age at coronary dilation diagnosis was 6.4 years (range: 0-17.0). Aortic stenosis was present in 14 (82%) [2 (14%) moderate, 8 (57%) severe]; 10 (59%) had aortic regurgitation; 8 (47%) had aortic dilation. The right coronary was dilated in 15 (88%), left main in 6 (35%), and left anterior descending in 1 (6%) with no relationship between leaflet fusion pattern or severity of aortic regurgitation/stenosis on coronary Z-score. Follow-up evaluations were available for 11 (mean 9.3 years, range 1.1–14.8) with coronary Z-scores increasing in 9/11 (82%). Aspirin was used in 10 (59%). There were no deaths or coronary artery thrombosis.
In children with bicuspid/unicuspid aortic valves and coronary dilation, the right coronary artery was most frequently involved. Coronary dilation was observed in early childhood and frequently progressed. Antiplatelet medication use was inconsistent, but no child died nor developed thrombosis.
Children with heart disease may require inpatient care for many reasons, but ultimately have a final reason for hospitalisation prior to discharge. Factors influencing length of stay in paediatric cardiac acute care units have been described but the last reason for hospitalisation has not been studied. Our aim was to describe Final Hospital Need as a novel measure, determine Final Hospital Need in our patients, and describe factors associated with this Need.
Single-centre survey design. Discharging providers selected a Final Hospital Need from the following categories: cardiovascular, respiratory, feeding/fluid, haematology/ID, pain/sedation, systems issues, and other/wound issues. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed separately for outcomes “cardiovascular” and “feeding/fluid.”
Measurements and Results:
Survey response rate was 99% (624 encounters). The most frequent Final Hospital Needs were cardiovascular (36%), feeding/fluid (24%) and systems issues (13%). Probability of Final Hospital Need “cardiovascular” decreased as length of stay increased. Multivariate analysis showed Final Hospital Need “cardiovascular” was negatively associated with aortic arch repair, Norwood procedure, and Final ICU Need “respiratory” and “other.” Final Hospital Need "feeding/fluid” was negatively associated with left-sided valve procedure, but positively associated with final ICU need “respiratory,” and tube feeding at discharge.
Final Hospital Need is a novel measure that can be predicted by clinical factors including age, Final ICU Need, and type of surgery. Final Hospital Need may be utilised to track changes in clinical care over time and as a target for improvement work.
To determine the Final ICU Need in the 24 hours prior to ICU discharge for children with cardiac disease by utilising a single-centre survey.
A cross-sectional survey was utilised to determine Final ICU Need, which was categorised as “Cardiovascular”, “Respiratory”, “Feeding”, “Sedation”, “Systems Issue”, or “Other” for each encounter. Survey responses were obtained from attending physicians who discharged children (≤18 years of age with ICU length of stay >24 hours) from the Cardiac ICU between April 2016 and July 2018.
Measurements and results:
Survey response rate was 99% (n = 1073), with 667 encounters eligible for analysis. “Cardiovascular” (61%) and “Respiratory” (26%) were the most frequently chosen Final ICU Needs. From a multivariable mixed effects logistic regression model fitted to “Cardiovascular” and “Respiratory”, operations with significantly reduced odds of having “Cardiovascular” Final ICU Need included Glenn palliation (p = 0.003), total anomalous pulmonary venous connection repair (p = 0.024), truncus arteriosus repair (p = 0.044), and vascular ring repair (p < 0.001). Short lengths of stay (<7.9 days) had significantly higher odds of “Cardiovascular” Final ICU Need (p < 0.001). “Cardiovascular” and “Respiratory” Final ICU Needs were also associated with provider and ICU discharge season.
Final ICU Need is a novel metric to identify variations in Cardiac ICU utilisation and clinical trajectories. Final ICU Need was significantly influenced by benchmark operation, length of stay, provider, and season. Future applications of Final ICU Need include targeting quality and research initiatives, calibrating provider and family expectations, and identifying provider-level variability in care processes and mental models.
To review the management of temporal bone fractures at a major trauma centre and introduce an evidence-based protocol.
A review of reports of head computed tomography performed for trauma from January 2012 to July 2018 was conducted. Recorded data fields included: mode of trauma, patient age, associated intracranial injury, mortality, temporal bone fracture pattern, symptoms and intervention.
Of 815 temporal bone fracture cases, records for 165 patients met the inclusion criteria; detailed analysis was performed on the records of these patients.
Temporal bone fractures represent high-energy trauma. Initial management focuses on stabilisation of the patient and treatment of associated intracranial injury. Acute ENT intervention is directed towards the management of facial palsy and cerebrospinal fluid leak, and often requires multidisciplinary team input. The role of nerve conduction assessment for immediate facial palsy is variable across the UK. The administration of high-dose steroids in patients with temporal bone fracture and intracranial injury is not advised. A robust evidence-based approach is introduced for the management of significant ENT complications associated with temporal bone fractures.
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