Dafydd ap Gwilym A poet (fl. c. 1330–c. 1360), best known for his cywyddau. Traditionally he was credited with transforming Welsh poetry and popularising the cywydd form, but he was one of several poets in the period. Highly prolific and extremely popular, Dafydd ap Gwilym wrote traditional poetry in traditional metres, but a large corpus of love poetry and poems to women and lovers is attributed to him, mostly in the cywydd metre. For his work see www.dafyddapgwilym. net.
Ednyfed Fychan (d. 1246) The son of Cynwrig ab Iorwerth ap Gwrgant; the family came from the cantref of Rhos in north-east Wales. He was the distain of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth (q.v.) from c.1220, retaining the office until his death. The value of Ednyfed's service was reflected in the lands and privileges granted to him by Llywelyn. His descendants held these lands by a tenure described as that of Wyrion Eden (‘the grandsons of Ednyfed’), which involved exemption from all rents and obligations except suit to the prince's court and military service. His numerous descendants came to dominate the government of the English principality of Wales and included the Tudor kings and queens of England.
Glendower, Owen See Owain Glyndŵr
Iolo Goch (fl. 1345–97), poet, of Llechryd in the parish of Llanefydd in the Marcher lordship of Denbigh. His most famous patron was Owain Glyndŵr, to whom he addressed three poems in the 1380s but he also addressed poems to Roger Mortimer, earl of March (d. 1398), and Edward III.
Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (d. 1282), prince of Wales, grandson of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth. His rise to power re-established Gwynedd's political and military power over other Welsh lords in the 1250s. Attempts to consolidate this via a feudal relationship with the English Crown resulted in war in 1277 and 1287. His death in battle, probably in the vicinity of Irfon Bridge, near Builth, confirmed Edward I’s conquest of Gwynedd.
Llywelyn ab Iorwerth (c. 1173–1240), prince of Gwynedd and, from 1230, prince of Wales. He stands out as one of the greatest rulers of independent Wales and he is remembered as Llywelyn Fawr or Llywelyn the Great; the title seems first to have been used by the English chronicler Matthew Paris. Having started from nothing, he ended his days as prince of Wales in all but name, having achieved this position entirely through his political and military ability.