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Whole cereal grain foods are rich in phytate, a Ca chelator, and could increase the risk of hip fracture. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between baseline whole grain intake and incident hip fracture. In the present study, 29 192 women who at baseline in 1986 were aged 55–69 years, free of diabetes, and reported a plausible energy intake of 2508–20 900 kJ/d and reported no fracture since the age of 35 years were followed. Hip fracture (n 746) was self-reported in five questionnaires through 2004. Of 1451 hip fractures identified passively by Medicare linkage through 31 December 2004 (Medicare hip fracture), 507 had also been self-reported. Whole grain intake was inversely related to Medicare hip fracture (Ptrend = 0·02), but it was unrelated to self-reported hip fracture (Ptrend = 0·27). The hazard ratio in the highest to lowest quintile of whole grain intake for incident Medicare-only hip fracture (n 944) was 0·66 (95 % CI 0·53, 0·82) after adjustment for age, energy intake, education, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, farm residence, physical activity, oestrogen use, smoking, alcohol use, history of cancer and other dietary variables. Medicare-only cases may have failed to self-report due to severe illness; hazard ratio for total mortality after hip fracture was 2·92 (2·37, 3·59) for Medicare-only cases v. Medicare-confirmed self-reported cases. In conclusion, in this cohort, the inverse association between whole grain intake and hip fracture was explained by ascertainment bias. Whole grain intake may increase the ability to respond to a questionnaire and self-report hip fracture, and could reflect less undocumented frailty.
To assess the cross-sectional association of dietary and supplemental antioxidant (carotenoids, vitamins C and E) intake with cognitive function in 12 187 individuals, aged 48–67 years, participating in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
Dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, and use of supplements were analysed in relation to the results of three cognitive tests, the delayed word recall test, the Wechsler adult intelligence scale, revised (WAIS-R) digit symbol subtest and the word fluency test.
After adjustment for covariates previously found to be associated with cognition in this sample, we found no consistent associations between dietary antioxidant vitamin intake or supplement use and any of the cognitive tests.
This study suggests little, if any, association between antioxidant vitamin intake and better cognitive function in middle-aged adults.
To assess whether alcoholic and caffeinated beverages are associated with risk of fractures in women.
Population-based sample surveyed by post.
A total of 34703 postmenopausal Iowan women aged 55–69 years were surveyed.
A cohort of women reported alcoholic and caffeinated beverage intake and were followed for 6.5 years for fracture occurrence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Covariates included age, tobacco use, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), oestrogen use and calcium intake.
At least one fracture was reported by 4378 women (389 upper arm, 288 forearm, 1128 wrist, 275 hip, 416 vertebral and 2920 other fractures). The adjusted RR for highest versus lowest caffeine intake quintiles was 1.09 (95% CI 0.99–1.21) for combined fracture sites. Wrist fractures were associated positively (RR for extreme quintiles 1.37, 95% CI 1.11–1.69) and upper arm fractures were negatively associated (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.48–0.94) with caffeine intake. The age-adjusted RR of total fractures for highest versus lowest frequency of beer usage was 1.55 (95% CI 1.25–1.92) and for liquor was 1.25 (95% CI 1.03–1.54). No other association was found between any specific fracture site and alcohol intake.
We found a modest increase in fracture risk associated with highest caffeine intake, varying by site. Alcohol intake was low, but it also showed a weak positive association with fracture risk.
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