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Hydrogen lithography has been used to template phosphine-based surface chemistry to fabricate atomic-scale devices, a process we abbreviate as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM). Here, we use mid-infrared variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (IR-VASE) to characterize single-nanometer thickness phosphorus dopant layers (δ-layers) in silicon made using APAM compatible processes. A large Drude response is directly attributable to the δ-layer and can be used for nondestructive monitoring of the condition of the APAM layer when integrating additional processing steps. The carrier density and mobility extracted from our room temperature IR-VASE measurements are consistent with cryogenic magneto-transport measurements, showing that APAM δ-layers function at room temperature. Finally, the permittivity extracted from these measurements shows that the doping in the APAM δ-layers is so large that their low-frequency in-plane response is reminiscent of a silicide. However, there is no indication of a plasma resonance, likely due to reduced dimensionality and/or low scattering lifetime.
We describe an experiment to interface and characterize silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) aggregates that are self-assembled and plastically deformable on a thin gold (Au) film deposited on glass substrate. The electrical characterization is done using an electrical nanoprobe attached to a nano-manipulator inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Electrical current-voltage (I-V) measurements are made between the electrical nanoprobe in contact with the nanoparticle and the Au film. The Ag nanoparticles have diameters ranging between ~200-800nm and are self-assembled on a thiolated 100nm Au film. Application of a contact force via the nanoprobe even after substantial particle deformation reveals initially a small non-linear current. Upon current annealing through Joule heating, significant improvement in the electrical contact at the AgNP/substrate interface was observed. This is most likely based on bonding of the AgNPs to the Au film after passage of a high current. The need for such an annealing/sintering step will be critical in forming good ohmic contacts at ambient conditions during transfer printing of semiconductor micro/nanopillars.
Memory cells based on Cu+ and Ag+ metal-organic charge-transfer complexes, as for example CuTCNQ (where TCNQ denotes 7,7',8,8'-tetracyanoquinodimethane), are well known for their bistable resistive electrical switching since 1979. The switching mechanism however remained unclear for very long time. In this contribution we describe the different views (bulk vs. interfacial switching), give evidence for interfacial switching in the case of CuTCNQ, and present a model allowing explaining the bipolar resistive electrical switching by an interfacial effect, even for experiments considered until now as proof for bulk switching. The proposed switching mechanism is based on bridging of an ion-permeable layer (or gap) by conductive Cu channels, which are formed and dissolved by an electrochemical reaction implying monovalent Cu+ cations, originating from a solid ionic conductor (as for example CuTCNQ). The model was furthermore generalized to other memory systems consisting of a permeable layer and a solid ionic conductor, including also inorganic solid ionic conductors as for example Ag2S.
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