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In this article, we lay out the basic case for wellbeing as the goal of government. We briefly review the history of this idea, which goes back to the ancient Greeks and was the acknowledged ideal of the Enlightenment. We then discuss possible measures on which a wellbeing orientation could be based, emphasizing the importance of acknowledging the political agency of citizens and thus their own evaluations of their lives. We then turn to practicalities and consequences: how would one actually set up wellbeing-oriented decision-making and what difference should we expect from current practice? We end by discussing the current barriers to the adoption of wellbeing as the goal of government, both in terms of what we need to know more about and where the ideological barriers lie.
A diverse millipede (diplopod) fauna has been recovered from the earliest Carboniferous (Tournaisian) Ballagan Formation of the Scottish Borders, discovered by the late Stan Wood. The material is generally fragmentary; however, six different taxa are present based on seven specimens. Only one displays enough characters for formal description and is named Woodesmus sheari Ross, Edgecombe & Clark gen. & sp. nov. The absence of paranota justifies the erection of Woodesmidae fam. nov. within the Archipolypoda. The diverse fauna supports the theory that an apparent lack of terrestrial animal fossils from ‘Romer's Gap' was due to a lack of collecting and suitable deposits, rather than to low oxygen levels as previously suggested.
The development of large-scale shale gas production has been described as a game-changer for the US energy market and has generated interest in expanding the use of natural gas in sectors such as electricity generation and transportation. This development has been made possible by improvements in drilling technologies—specifically utilizing hydraulic fracturing in conjunction with horizontal drilling—that have enabled the production of natural gas from unconventional formations. However, the environmental implications of natural gas production and its use have been called into question. Environmental impacts associated with shale gas development can occur at the global and local levels and include impacts to climate, local air quality, water availability, water quality, seismic events, and the local community. A variety of technologies and practices are available to operators to reduce these impacts. Policies are currently under development at the federal, state, and local level to mitigate environmental impacts. In this document, we discuss the technologies involved in shale gas production, the potential abiotic impacts of shale gas production with an emphasis on air and water issues, and the practices and policies currently being developed and implemented to mitigate these impacts.
Adverse early care is associated with attention regulatory problems, but not all so exposed develop attention problems. In a sample of 612 youth (girls = 432, M = 11.82 years, SD = 1.5) adopted from institutions (e.g., orphanages) in 25 countries, we examined whether the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene moderates attention problems associated with the duration of institutional care. Parent-reported attention problem symptoms were collected using the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire. DNA was genotyped for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met (rs6265) single nucleotide polymorphism. Among youth from Southeast (SE) Asia, the predominant genotype was valine/methionine (Val/Met), whereas among youth from Russia/Europe and Caribbean/South America, the predominant genotype was Val/Val. For analysis, youth were grouped as carrying Val/Val or Met/Met alleles. Being female, being from SE Asia, and being younger when adopted were associated with fewer attention regulatory problem symptoms. Youth carrying at least one copy of the Met allele were more sensitive to the duration of deprivation, yielding an interaction that followed a differential susceptibility pattern. Thus, youth with Val/Met or Met/Met genotypes exhibited fewer symptoms than Val/Val genotypes when adoption was very early and more symptoms when adoption occurred later in development. Similar patterns were observed when SE Asian youth and youth from other parts of the world were analyzed separately.