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Collision avoidance (COLAV) is a prerequisite for the navigation safety of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Since USVs have to avoid obstacles clearly and timely, i.e. the COLAV should be agile, the COLAV algorithm should have low computation complexity and make efficient COLAV decisions. However, balancing between the computation complexity and the COLAV decision optimality is still intractable at present. This paper innovatively proposes a COLAV algorithm for USVs by combining the velocity obstacle method with the predictive model method, named the collision shielded model predictive control (CS-MPC) algorithm, such that the agility of USVs COLAV is improved. The runtime of the proposed COLAV algorithm is shortened by shielding the dangerous parts of the search space of the COLAV decisions, and the COLAV decision is efficient with the aid of the accurately predicted motion trajectory by the motion mathematical model of USVs. As such, the USV can safely navigate in complex water areas where multiple vessels and obstacles exist. A series of simulations on a yacht in different kinds of encounter situations were carried out to verify the effectiveness and the agility of the proposed CS-MPC COLAV algorithm.
Grey matter (GM) reduction is a consistent observation in established late stages of schizophrenia, but patients in the untreated early stages of illness display an increase as well as a decrease in GM distribution relative to healthy controls (HC). The relative excess of GM may indicate putative compensatory responses, though to date its relevance is unclear.
343 first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia (FES) and 342 HC were recruited. Multivariate source-based morphometry was performed to identify covarying ‘networks' of grey matter concentration (GMC). Neurocognitive scores using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and symptom burden using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) were obtained. Bivariate linear relationships between GMC and cognition/symptoms were studied.
Compared to healthy subjects, FES had prominently lower GMC in two components; the first consists of the anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate and the second component with the superior temporal gyrus, precuneus, inferior/superior parietal lobule, cuneus, and lingual gyrus. Higher GMC was seen in adjacent areas of the middle and superior temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal cortex and putamen. Greater GMC of this component was associated with lower duration of untreated psychosis, less severe positive symptoms and better performance on cognitive tests.
In untreated stages of schizophrenia, both a distributed lower and higher GMC is observable. While the higher GMC is relatively modest, it occurs across frontoparietal, temporal and subcortical regions in association with reduced illness burden suggesting a compensatory role for higher GMC in the early stages of schizophrenia.
Attentional bias toward health-threat may theoretically contribute to the development and maintenance of health anxiety, but the empirical findings have been controversial. This study aimed to synthesize and explore the heterogeneity in a health-threat related attentional bias of health-anxious individuals, and to determine the theoretical model that better represents the pattern of attentional bias in health anxiety. Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus) were searched for relevant studies, with 17 articles (N = 1546) included for a qualitative review and 16 articles (18 studies) for a three-level meta-analysis (N = 1490). The meta-analytic results indicated that the health anxiety group, compared to the control group, showed significantly greater attentional bias toward health-threat (g = 0.256). Further analyses revealed that attentional bias type, paradigm, and stimuli type were significant moderators. Additionally, compared to the controls, health-anxious individuals displayed significantly greater attention maintenance (g = 0.327) but nonsignificant attention vigilance to health-threat (g = −0.116). Our results provide evidence for the attention maintenance model in health-anxious individuals. The implications for further research and treatment of elevated health anxiety in the context of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) were also discussed.
Deficits in event-related potential (ERP) including duration mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a have been demonstrated widely in chronic schizophrenia (SZ) but inconsistent findings were reported in first-episode patients. Psychotropic medications and diagnosis might contribute to different findings on MMN/P3a ERP in first-episode patients. The present study examined MMN and P3a in first episode drug naïve SZ and bipolar disorder (BPD) patients and explored the relationships among ERPs, neurocognition and global functioning.
Twenty SZ, 24 BPD and 49 age and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Data of clinical symptoms [Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Young Manic Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD)], neurocognition [Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CCFT), Delay Matching to Sample (DMS), Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP)], and functioning [Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST)] were collected. P3a and MMN were elicited using a passive auditory oddball paradigm.
Significant MMN and P3a deficits and impaired neurocognition were found in both SZ and BPD patients. In SZ, MMN was significantly correlated with FAST (r = 0.48) and CCFT (r = −0.31). In BPD, MMN was significantly correlated with DMS (r = −0.54). For P3a, RVP and FAST scores were significant predictors in SZ, whereas RVP, WAIS and FAST were significant predictors in BPD.
The present study found deficits in MMN, P3a, neurocognition in drug naïve SZ and BPD patients. These deficits appeared to link with levels of higher-order cognition and functioning.
We present extensions to ChainQueen, an open source, fully differentiable material point method simulator for soft robotics. Previous work established ChainQueen as a powerful tool for inference, control, and co-design for soft robotics. We detail enhancements to ChainQueen, allowing for more efficient simulation and optimization and expressive co-optimization over material properties and geometric parameters. We package our simulator extensions in an easy-to-use, modular application programming interface (API) with predefined observation models, controllers, actuators, optimizers, and geometric processing tools, making it simple to prototype complex experiments in 50 lines or fewer. We demonstrate the power of our simulator extensions in over nine simulated experiments.
Understanding the patterns of treatment response is critical for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; one way to achieve this is through using a longitudinal dynamic process study design.
This study aims to explore the response trajectory of antipsychotics and compare the treatment responses of seven different antipsychotics over 6 weeks in patients with schizoprenia (trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934).
Data were collected from a multicentre, randomised open-label clinical trial. Patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and follow-up at weeks 2, 4 and 6. Trajectory groups were classified by the method of k-means cluster modelling for longitudinal data. Trajectory analyses were also employed for the seven antipsychotic groups.
The early treatment response trajectories were classified into a high-trajectory group of better responders and a low-trajectory group of worse responders. The results of trajectory analysis showed differences compared with the classification method characterised by a 50% reduction in PANSS scores at week 6. A total of 349 patients were inconsistently grouped by the two methods, with a significant difference in the composition ratio of treatment response groups using these two methods (χ2 = 43.37, P < 0.001). There was no differential contribution of high- and low trajectories to different drugs (χ2 = 12.52, P = 0.051); olanzapine and risperidone, which had a larger proportion in the >50% reduction at week 6, performed better than aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone and perphenazine.
The trajectory analysis of treatment response to schizophrenia revealed two distinct trajectories. Comparing the treatment responses to different antipsychotics through longitudinal analysis may offer a new perspective for evaluating antipsychotics.
The Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) gene has been identified as a top risk gene for schizophrenia in several large-scale genome-wide association studies. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) of this gene is the most significant expression quantitative trait locus, but its role in brain activity in vivo is still unknown.
We first performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan of 101 healthy subjects during a memory span task, trained all subjects on an adaptive memory span task for 1 month, and finally performed another fMRI scan after the training. After excluding subjects with excessive head movements for one or more scanning sessions, data from 93 subjects were included in the final analyses.
The VNTR was significantly associated with both baseline brain activation and training-induced changes in multiple regions including the prefrontal cortex and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, it was associated with baseline brain activation in the striatum and the parietal cortex. All these results were corrected based on the family-wise error rate method across the whole brain at the peak level.
This study sheds light on the role of AS3MT gene variants in neural plasticity related to memory span training.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
As the basic conditions for laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research, the targets are required to be well specified and elaborately fabricated. Because of the characteristics of the targets, the research and fabrication process is a systematically tough task, which needs fundamental and deep insights into film deposition, mechanical machining, precise measurement and assembly, etc. As a result, knowledge of material science, physics, mechanical as well as electronics is a necessity for target researchers. In this paper, we give introductions to the state of art on target fabrication for ICF research at Research Center of Laser Fusion (RCLF) in China.
This study was designed to determine the effect of melatonin on the in vitro maturation (IVM) and developmental potential of bovine oocytes denuded of the cumulus oophorus (DOs). DOs were cultured alone (DOs) or with 10−9 M melatonin (DOs + MT), cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured without melatonin as the control. After IVM, meiosis II (MII) rates of DOs, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, apoptotic rates and parthenogenetic blastocyst rates of MII oocytes were determined. The relative expression of ATP synthase F0 Subunit 6 and 8 (ATP6 and ATP8), bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9) mRNA in MII oocytes and IFN-tau (IFN-τ), Na+/K+-ATPase, catenin-beta like 1 (CTNNBL1) and AQP3 mRNA in parthenogenetic blastocysts were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results showed that: (1) melatonin significantly increased the MII rate of DOs (65.67 ± 3.59 % vs. 82.29 ± 3.92%; P < 0.05), decreased the ROS level (4.83 ± 0.42 counts per second (c.p.s) vs. 3.78 ± 0.29 c.p.s; P < 0.05) and apoptotic rate (36.99 ± 3.62 % vs. 21.88 ± 2.08 %; P < 0.05) and moderated the reduction of relative mRNA levels of ATP6, ATP8, BMP-15 and GDF-9 caused by oocyte denudation; (2) melatonin significantly increased the developmental rate (24.17 ± 3.54 % vs. 35.26 ± 4.87%; P < 0.05), and expression levels of IFN-τ, Na+/K+-ATPase, CTNNBL1 and AQP3 mRNA of blastocyst. These results indicated that melatonin significantly improved the IVM quality of DOs, leading to an increased parthenogenetic blastocyst formation rate and quality.
Elderly females, particularly those carrying the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-ε4 allele, have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism for this increased susceptibility remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of the ApoE genotype and gender on the proteome of synaptosomes. We isolated synaptosomes and used label-free quantitative proteomics, to report, for the first time, that the synaptosomal proteomic profiles in the cortex of female human-ApoE4 mice exhibited significantly reduced expression of proteins related to energy metabolism, which was accompanied by increased levels of oxidative stress. In addition, we also first demonstrated that the proteomic response in synaptic termini was more susceptible than that in the soma to the adverse effects induced by genders and genotypes. This suggests that synaptic mitochondria might be ‘older’ than mitochondria in the soma of neurons; therefore, they might contain increased cumulative damage from oxidative stress. Furthermore, female human-ApoE4 mice had much lower oestrogen levels in the cortex and treatment with oestrogen protected ApoE3 stable transfected C6 neurons from oxidative stress. Overall, this study reveals complex ApoE- and gender-dependent effects on synaptic function and also provides a basis for future studies of candidates based on specific pathways involved in the pathogenesis of AD. The lack of oestrogen-mediated protection regulated by the ApoE genotype led to synaptic mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, which might make older females more susceptible to AD.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
A simple one-pot hydrothermal approach that allowed the selective synthesis of complex ZnO architectures with varying configurations without using any surfactants and/or solid templates is proposed in this paper. The ZnO configurations include spherical aggregates, nanosheet-based flowers, microrod-composed flowers, and nanopetal-built flowers. Kinetic factors (i.e., the base type and base/Zn2+ molar ratio) can be easily utilized to control the oriented attachment and growth of [Zn(OH)]2− on the (001) polar planes, thereby regulating the morphology of ZnO architectures. The ZnO architectures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and specific surface area. The relationships between the structures and microwave electromagnetic properties were established. Enhanced dielectric and absorption properties were exhibited by ZnO flowers composed of large-aspect-ratio microrods. Such properties could be attributed to the improved microcurrent attenuation and interface scattering rather than the dielectric relaxation and microantenna radiation. This study provides a guide for creating and synthesizing highly efficient microwave absorbing materials.
This paper proposes a new effective kinematics method based on the dynamic visual window (DVW) for a surgical robot that is equipped with two instrument arms and one laparoscope arm, to enable doctors to achieve operations with their visual habits under the laparoscopic visual environment. The problem of the consistency principle between the doctor's operations under the visual window's feedback and the master–slave operations of the surgical robot is solved. The kinematics models of the surgical robotic arms are established, and the new kinematics methods based on the DVW of the laparoscope and instrument arms are proposed according to their inverse kinematics with respect to the visual coordinate system. Finally, the proposed kinematics method is verified by simulation experiments based on the theoretical algorithm and the mechanism model; the multiple sets of the simulation data are presented to illustrate the correctness and feasibility of the new method in this research.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is considered the driving force of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and plays an important role in mood regulation. The HPA axis is reported to be closely related to acute stress-induced tau phosphorylation in the rodent hippocampus. However, the relationship between the hyperactive HPA axis and tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus and hence the functional implications for chronic stress are not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to examine tau phosphorylation and the effect on axonal transport of mitochondria in the hippocampus of a chronic stress model. A mouse model was created by neonatal isolation before weaning, followed by chronic mild stress by social isolation after weaning. Behavioural tests showed that the model had a typical depression/anxiety-like behaviour accompanied by increased plasma corticosterone level and hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression. Phosphorylated tau increased significantly, accompanied by increased synaptosomal mitochondrial levels in hippocampus of the chronic stress model. CRH receptor 1 antagonist (CP154,526) treatment, not glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (RU486) treatment, decreased tau phosphorylation and synaptosomal mitochondrial levels in the hippocampus of the mouse model. Consistent with an in-vivo model, when hyperphosphorylated tau was inhibited by lithium in cultured primary hippocampal neurons, mitochondrial transport monitored by live imaging was also decreased. We show here for the first time that phosphorylated tau in the hippocampus of a chronic stress model, accompanied by increased mitochondrial transport, was mediated by CRH receptor 1, not by glucocorticoid receptors, which suggests that centrally derived CRH may be involved in the process of mitochondrial axon transport and hence play an important role in hippocampus of a chronic stress model.
Twins could play a crucial role in our understanding of genetic contributions to numerous etiologically complex disorders. In China, although adult twins are relatively rare, twins will become increasingly available due to increasing twin birth rates. Thus, child twin data will be a valuable resource to contribute to the field of child and adolescent psychopathology. The first twin database of children aged from 6 to 16 was established in Chongqing, R.P., China. In this article, we will discuss our experiences in establishing the twin database, completed in three steps — the first step being to search and identify twins, the second being to keep contact with the twins and the final being to seek cooperation with the twin families, and its future prospects. Our twin database has proven to be an efficient method for the investigation and data collection of twin children in China. The results of our present study suggest that the inclusion of twin information in the residence registration of the public security bureaus in the future may ensure a smooth run of research based on the demographic resources. We propose that school networks may be adopted as the preferred method of collection of twin records for future studies.
This study tested the hypothesis that the hippocampus has a
relatively specific role in retaining information over delays.
Thirty-seven subjects with probable Alzheimer's disease were
evaluated with a verbal memory task and structural MRI. Cortical gray
matter but not hippocampal volume predicted immediate free recall. In
contrast, hippocampal volume was the best predictor of how well
information was retained over a delay, even after controlling for
levels of immediate recall. Results suggest that the role of the
hippocampus is relatively specific to the consolidation of new
memories. (JINS, 2004, 10, 639–643.)