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This cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the status of school-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) resources and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Odeda, Ogun State, Nigeria. The status and condition of WASH resources were determined in eight selected schools (three with WASH support and five without). Stool samples were also collected from 428 pupils from both school categories and screened for STH infections. Findings showed that water and sanitation conditions of WASH resource programming schools were better than those in schools without WASH support. However, pupils’ knowledge about STH infections and basic hygiene were not significantly different between both categories of school (P > 0·05). The prevalence of Hookworm, Ascariasis and Trichuriasis cases recorded were 26·2, 18·2 and 1·6% respectively, with an overall prevalence of 33·4%. By school categories, Ascariasis (14·9 vs 20·6), Hookworm (17·7 vs 32·0), Trichuriasis (1·7 vs 1·6) and, any STH prevalence (27·4 vs 37·5) were recorded for schools with WASH resource programming and those without respectively. A greater portion of the infected children 95 (66·4%) were from schools without WASH support. Our findings imply that WASH resource may have very positive impact on the control of STH among school children. However, there is need for improvement on coverage, adequacy and maintenance of WASH facilities in school.
Seasonal fluctuations of the Simulium damnosum Theobald complex and the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus Bickel in blackflies caught in river systems bordering the Nigeria–Benin border were assessed for their direct impact on the epidemiology of onchocerciasis in South-western Nigeria. Entomological evaluation and heteroduplex assay (HDA) techniques were performed on flies caught in the eight capture points in the Ogun and Yewa river systems between October and December 2007, July and December 2008 and May and December 2009. A total of 5789 blackflies were caught on human bait, of which 727 (12.6%) flies were captured in 2007, 1723 (29.8%) in 2008 and 3339 (57.6%) in 2009. The majority of flies caught during the study were forest flies representing 90.3% of the total catch while savanna flies constituted 9.7%. Proportions of parous to nulliparous flies were low in all the catching points (31.1 and 68.9%, respectively). Of the 5789 flies dissected, 11 (0.2%) flies were infected with Onchocerca parasites with nine of the infected flies having L3 head parasites. The HDA results revealed that the Beffa form of S. soubrense was the dominant cytospecies present (87.1%) in all the capture sites when compared with 12.9% of S. damnosum s.s. The low level of infectivity of flies may therefore indicate a low transmission level of onchocerciasis in the communities along the Ogun and Yewa river systems. However, there is a need for constant surveillance on species composition and fly infectivity in the river systems along the borders of Nigeria–Benin Republic.
There is an urgent need for information on schistosomiasis in preschool children, who are often excluded in mass treatment programmes. The prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection were determined in preschool children aged ≤ 6 years in two rural communities in Ijebu East, south-western Nigeria. Two urine samples each were collected from 83 preschool children from the two communities, tested for microhaematuria using reagent strips and then processed and examined with a microscope for S. haematobium eggs. Focus group discussions on perceptions of the disease and water contact practices were held in the communities with their guardians, caregivers and preschool children, using an interview guide. The prevalence of S. haematobium in the two communities was 14 (16.9%), with no significant differences (P = 0.661) in infection rate between boys (18.4%) and girls (14.7%). Both prevalence and intensity of infection did not increase significantly with age in both Korede and Obada community. However, there were significant differences in prevalence of infection between the two communities (P = 0.035). There was no association (P = 0.750) between intensity in boys (0.176 eggs/10 ml urine) and girls (0.110 eggs/10 ml urine). Focal group discussions with guardians and caregivers revealed that preschool children acquired infection early in their lives through exposure to infected stream water by their mothers, while the older children visit the stream for playing, bathing and swimming. It has therefore become imperative for preschool children to be included in the planning of schistosomiasis intervention programmes as a means of reducing transmission.
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