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Populations of the six equine breeds registered by the Indian National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources have drastically decreased due to indiscriminate breeding and their low utilization. In this study, 15 biometric indices along with typical breed characteristics were recorded for 50 animals of each breed except Bhutia breed (35) for their phenotypic characterization. On the basis of their heights at wither, Kathiawari and Marwari breeds were grouped under “horse”, while Zanskari, Manipuri, Bhutia and Spiti fell under “pony” breeds. Marwari was the tallest and significantly different from other breeds in most of the biometric indices. Spiti was the shortest breed among all the six horse and pony breeds. Sex-wise differences were also observed in some of the biometric indices in different breeds. In Marwari and Kathiawari breeds, both stallions and mares can rotate their ears at an angle of 180° making the ear tips meet in the centre, which is a typical characteristic of the two breeds. This report aims at providing reference data for identification and comparison of different breeds of equines in India with a view to raise awareness among animal geneticists and breeders for production of true to breed animals, conservation and better management of these precious genetic resources.
This communication presents a comparison of two cases to study the process of laser beam propagation and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) in laser plasma interaction. These two cases are, with imposing the restriction of paraxial approximation on the laser beam and, relaxing this restriction up to a certain extent. In this work, the study done by Sharma et al. (2009) using paraxial approximation is extended by taking contribution of the off-axial rays in the laser beam profile. The spitted profile of the laser beam is obtained due to uneven focusing of the off-axial rays and its effect on localization of the ion acoustic wave (IAW) has been studied. Including the off-axial part of the laser beam semi-analytical solution of the nonlinear coupled IAW equation has been found and this is examined that off-axial part affects background densities. The nonlinear coupling between the laser beam and IAW is severely affected by modified profile of the laser beam. Further, it is investigated that the SBS is also influenced by this coupling process. Therefore, the reflectivity of SBS has been compared with and without contribution of off-axial rays. A notable change is found in the magnitude of SBS reflectivity in modified-paraxial case in comparison to the paraxial case.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
In this article, filamentation of a high power laser beam in hot collisionless plasma is investigated considering the ponderomotive nonlinearity. We have studied the effect of self focusing (filamentation) of the laser beam on the localization of ion acoustic wave (IAW) and on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) process. The nonlinear coupling between the laser beam and IAW results in the modification of the Eigen frequency of IAW; consequently, enhanced Landau damping of IAW and a modified mismatch factor in SBS process occur. Due to enhanced Landau damping, there is a reduction in the intensity of IAW wave, and the SBS process gets suppressed. For the typical laser plasma parameters: the laser power flux = 1016 W/cm2, laser beam radius (r0) = 12 µm, n/ncr = 0.11, and (Te/Ti) = 10, the SBS reflectivity is found to be suppressed approximately by 10%.
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