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Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent, despite its many advantages and widespread use, there is increasing attention to the adverse effects associated with long-term exposure to this drug.We aimed to investigate the changes in the liver function tests (LFTs) associated with one year risperidone treatment in children and adolescents.
One hundred youths who treated with risperidone more than one year were included in the study. For this study, patients’ baseline and follow-up weight and hepatobiliary function tests including alanine aminotransferases(ALT) and aspartat aminotransferases (AST), gamma gluatamyl transerase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum bilirubin levels were measured baseline, after the treatment period of six months and one year.
Asymptomatic liver function test abnormalities mostly ALP elevation was found in subjects treated with risperidone. The mean levels of liver enzymes and billuribin of the patients were significantly higher after one year of treatment than the baseline. Also the mean levels of liver enzymes and billuribin of the patients were significantly higher after one year of treatment than the six months. There was significant association between changes in weight, risperidone dose and liver enzymes and billuribin levels.
These findings suggest that risperidone treatment in the long term commonly leads to liver function changes however it rarely may induce a serious hepatic toxicity at therapeutic doses in children and adolescents.
The motivation of the patient may affect response to treatment and prognosis.
The objective of this study was to compare the various types of application of patients in terms of their motivation and sociodemographic variables.
To demonstrate that patients who apply for treatment themselves have greater motivation and less depression and anxiety.
Patients who applied or were referred for treatment of addiction to the Elazig Hospital for Mental Disorders were included in this study. Patients diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, giving written informed consent and who did not have severe comorbid psychopathology were enrolled. Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales, and Motivation for Treatment Scale (MfT) were used in evaluation. p was set at 0.05.
Forty five male patients with a mean age of 37.9 (S.D. 11.2) were enrolled in the study. The mean scores for Beck Depression and Anxiety Scales and the Motivation for Treatment Scale were 27.7 (S.D. 12.8), 25.2 (S.D. 15.2) and 67.4 (S.D. 11.4); respectively. When the socio-demographic and clinical variables of the patients who applied voluntarily and those who were referred for treatment involuntarily were compared by Mann-Whitney U test, only the total score on the Motivation for Treatment Scale as well as those of its subscales for seeking help and being ready for treatment differed betwen groups (p: 0.01, 0.05 and 0.01; respectively).
Types of application for treatment may affect levels of motivation in patients for treatment. Techniques for motivational interview may especially be important for patients applying involuntarily.
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) defined by DSM-V is characterized by severe and recurrent temper outbursts and persistently irritable or angry mood.
Our aim is to attract attention to an adult case with DMDD since the literature is lacking adult manifestations.
A 18-year-old boy have been on follow-up in our outpatient clinic since he was 12 with complaints of being increasingly irritable and angry during most of the day. He had temper tantrums six or seven times per week involving verbal rages, physical aggression and throwing things to friends and family members. There had never been a distinct period lasting more than one day during which the full symptom criteria, for a manic, hypomanic or a depressive episode had been met. He was also reported to be hyperactive, impulsive, and had difficulty concentrating and focusing since he was seven. Laboratory evaluations were within normal limits. Results of screening forms provided by parents and teachers supported the presence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ASRS, YMRS, STAXI, SCID-I, Diagnostic Interview for Adult ADHD (DIVA) were the psychometric evaluations carried out in order better to characterize the clinical situation.
He was considered as fulfilling DSM-5 criteria for ADHD and DMDD, and started on sertraline 50 mg/day and OROS methylphenidate 36 mg/day. At the following visits, temper tantrums were much reduced and there were moderate improvement in ADHD symptoms.
By defining the adult manifestations of DMDD accurately, clinicians will be able to improve diagnosis and care.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
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