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Psychosocial rehabilitation is a challenge in a society with demands unsuitable for those with severe mental illness (SMI). The Mental Health Department of Matosinhos Local Health Unity (MHD-MLHU) has developed a solidarity project aiming to evaluate and elaborate individualized rehabilitative responses with people with SMI, including people from the community motivated for solidarity initiatives.
To describe a psychosocial rehabilitation project focused on community integration of people with SMI, considering needs and resources of the population, and to present the individualized rehabilitation plans carried out for people with SMI.
In January 2019, we began the home evaluation of people with SMI monitored in the MHD-MLHU. To develop solidary based play-occupational groups, we interviewed people from the community and from the common mental pathology outpatient clinic willing to participate.
We present the description and evaluation of the psychosocial responses developed by the project. These responses include recreational-occupational groups, tailored to interests of each person with SMI, and using the community support group built for the purpose. These responses promote face-to-face activities, and enhance the destigmatization of SMI. The constraints resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic led to the creation of digital responses aimed at people with SMI and the community in general.
This experience has revealed the great potential of rehabilitating the community context of people with SMI, rather than just contemplating pre-existing structured responses. The pandemic created specific challenges but made the initiative even more relevant for SMI people and for promoting the mental health of the general population.
The global COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented effect on human behaviour and wellbeing. However, researchers have not yet considered how coping responses to stress related to COVID-19 could influence mental health.
This study aims to evaluate the mental health status of Portuguese during the national lockdown; examine how study participants cope with stress during the national lockdown; and assess the association between coping and mental health status.
We cross sectionally analysed data from a convenience sample of 430 adults living in Portugal. Mental health was measured using the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Coping strategies were assessed using the Brief COPE. We examine the univariate associations between mental health status and coping responses. We performed a multiple hierarchical regression analysis controlling for sex and age, to test the predictive importance of coping responses on mental health status.
Participants’ mental health was lower than the cut-off point for poor mental health (p<.001). The use of instrumental support, emotional support, self-blame, venting, denial, behavioral disengagement, and substance use were positively significantly associated with mental health, while active coping, positive reframing, acceptance, and humor were negatively significantly associated with mental health. The multiple hierarchical regression analyses showed that sex and age accounted for 6% of the variance of mental health. Coping strategies accounted for an additional and statistically significant 30% of the variance of mental health.
The findings provide support for the impact of the coping strategies on mental health. We encourage future research on the present topic.
The Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has shown to be useful in the treatment of PTSD, general anxiety, stress and burnout. Nonetheless, assessing therapy progress has been limited to subjective appreciations of the patient and therapist, which compromise therapy efficacy, and the continuum of care (clinic and at home) and scalability that digitized approaches can offer.
The aim of the present study was to validate the potential of a smartphone-based biofeedback digitized approach for EMDR usage in burnout therapy, as a means to provide quantitative progress assessment and personalized therapy optimization.
A digitized burnout status assessment app based on Maslach Burnout Inventory was first implemented and tested. Then, an EMDR app was developed by making use of adjustable audiovisual stimuli (e.g. different velocity and horizontal/vertical visual stimuli; and different pitch and left-right surround sound effects) and also of the smartphone’s camera photoplethysmography finger recordings from which heart rate, heart rate variability and breathing rate are derived and used for modulating stimuli (biofeedback). Finally, interviews with several EMDR experts were conducted to assess the potential of the app as a therapeutic adjuvant.
The preliminary interview results showed that the app can be useful for online therapy, to optimize the stimuli presentation, and to quantify the therapy experience and outcomes. The interviews also validated the technical specifications and usability of the tool.
Results so far have shown a promising receptivity and interest from EMDR experts. As such, patient testing is currently on-going.
The work of the present abstract is the basis of the research conducted at the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, co-lead with NEVARO, a spin-off company of the same Faculty.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disease that significantly impacts cognitive functioning. Sex differences in incidence, onset and course of schizophrenia suggest estrogens have a protective role.
Our aim is to review the state of the art on this matter.
Through a selection of the most relevant articles found on PubMed and ClinicalKey searching the keywords: “estrogens” and “schizophrenia”.
Accumulating evidence has led to the hypothesis that estrogens act as a protective factor in women regarding the onset of schizophrenia as their increase in puberty may help delay the onset of symptoms. Also, the estrogens abrupt decline in menopause may account for a second peak of onset and greater severity of the symptoms. During the menstrual cycle, when serum estrogens are at their lowest, there is an increase in the number of psychotic episodes and an exacerbation of psychotic symptoms. Pregnancy leads to an improvement of psychotic symptoms, which then worsen in postpartum. Clinical trials testing the efficacy of estrogens have been promising, which suggest they might be a useful adjuvant treatment. Despite the evidence of clinical efficacy, health risks for women using estrogen therapy should be considered, as they decrease its acceptability as a viable treatment option. The use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), as raloxifene, could be a favorable and safer alternative.
In conclusion, estrogens are proving to be a promising option as a complementary therapy for schizophrenia; however, further studies are needed to investigate whether they might be overall beneficial.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and chronic illness characterized by episodic changes in mood. The average onset of BD symptoms is estimated between 18 and 22 years. However, many adults retrospectively report symptoms onset in childhood or adolescence. Over the last decades, pediatric bipolar disease (PBD) has been the focus of increased attention mainly due to controversies surrounding its prevalence, diagnosis and treatment in the pediatric population.
To analyze pediatric hospitalizations related to BD held in mainland Portuguese public hospitals between 2000 and 2015.
This retrospective observational study analyzed all pediatric (<18 years old) inpatient episodes from 2000 to 2015 with a primary BD diagnosis, using an anonymized administrative database including all hospitalization from mainland Portuguese public hospitals. ICD-9-CM codes 296.x were used (excluding codes 296.2x; .3x and .9x). Age at admission, admission type and date, sex, charges and length of stay (LoS) were analyzed.
A total of 348 hospitalizations were analyzed from 258 patients. Patients were mainly young girls (60.6%), with a mean age of 15.24±1.87 years. The majority of the admissions were urgent (81.0%), and the median LoS was 14 days (IQR: 7; 24). Mean hospitalization charges were 3503.1€ with a total sum of 1.2M€ for all the episodes.
PBD hospitalizations occur predominantly in female patients during adolescence. The majority of them are urgent admissions. Descriptive studies will help to describe and characterize sociodemographic and clinical trends in PBD in order to better prevent acute hospitalizations with inevitable social and economic implications.
Although some philosophers recognize in the loneliness an evolutionary existential process, a 2019 declaration of World Health Organization underlines the major health problem in the worldwide is the perception of state of loneliness. The feeling of loneliness linked to the social isolation (SI) or a lack of social opportunity activate a stressful condition associated to an increase of social dependence. This ‘learned social helplessness’ can be dangerous so that it is associated with an increased prevalence of suicides (Cacioppo and Cacioppo, 2018; Bzdok and Dunbar, 2020). Considering the impact of loneliness on the mental health we can assume that the COVID-19 forced SI affects the state of health and psychosocial well-being.
To evaluate the psychosocial impact of the SI in Italy.
An ad hoc survey have been sent from May to June 2020.
These results refer to the Italian survey of a multicenter investigation with partnership of Spain and Portugal universities. The investigation is in progress being a longitudinal study. Of the total 292 subjects investigated (age xM: 34; sD14.13), 118 (40,41%) had been in SI. Subjects forced into SI report more interference in the life satisfaction (p=0.003) though no more anxiety, depression and hostility we found in the SI group.
During the phase 2 of Italian COVID-19 diffusion, we found an impact on the life satisfaction more than psychopathology. We can assume that the impact of mental health it may occur as the reduction in life satisfaction associated with forced SI continues.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a precursor of cysteine and glutathione, widely known as an antidote to paracetamol overdose. Its role as precursor of an antioxidant and modulating agent of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways, raised interest in its application in psychiatric disorders. NAC emerges as a promising therapeutic agent in substance use disorders (SUD) and provides a treatment option in a field with limited and suboptimal therapies.
To describe the use of NAC in SUD (tobacco, cocaine, cannabis, methamphetamine and alcohol), its potential mechanisms and clinical application.
The literature was searched using the Pubmed database with the following keywords “N-acetylcysteine”, “Substance use disorders” and “Psychiatry”. Retrieved papers (2011-2018) were selected according to their relevance.
SUD results in disruption of glutamate system, in nucleus accumbens, a critical brain area in the rewarding system. NAC reestablishes glutamate homeostasis restoring function of the cysteine-glutamate exchange in glial cells and reversing the downregulated GLT-1 receptor. Concerning its properties, evidence suggests that NAC is able to decrease drive, craving or compulsion to consume, making it particular useful in relapse prevention after achieving abstinence.
NAC has revealed itself as a promising therapeutic agent in SUD and its safety profile and favourable tolerability, as well as being an over-the-counter medication, adds to its interest. Data is still preliminary for the use of NAC in psychiatry disorders, due to the relatively small number of trials and their heterogeneous methodology. Larger studies are needed to confirm efficacy, optimal doses, long-term tolerability and side effects.
To assess changes in daily habits, food choices and lifestyle of adult Brazilians before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.
This observational study was carried out with Brazilian adults through an online questionnaire 5 months after the social distance measures implementation. The McNemar, McNemar–Bowker and Wilcoxon tests were used to investigate differences before and during the COVID pandemic period, adopting the statistical significance of P < 0·05.
Totally, 1368 volunteers aged 18+ years.
The volunteers reported a lower frequency of breakfast, morning and lunch snacks (P < 0·05) and a higher frequency of evening snacks and other meal categories during the pandemic period (P < 0·05). The results showed an increase in the consumption of bakery products, instant meals and fast food, while the consumption of vegetables and fruits decreased (P < 0·005). There was a significant increase in the frequency of consumption of alcoholic beverages (P < 0·001), but a reduction in the dose (P < 0·001), increased frequency of smoking (P = 0·007), an increase in sleep and screen time in hours and decrease in physical activity (P < 0·001).
It was possible to observe an increase in screen time, hours of sleep, smoking and drinking frequency. On the other hand, there was a reduction in the dose of alcoholic beverages but also in the practice of physical activity. Eating habits also changed, reducing the performance of daytime meals and increasing the performance of nighttime meals. The frequency of consumption of instant meals and fast food has increased, while consumption of fruits and vegetables has decreased.
Delimiting and describing Plasmodium species in reptiles remains a pressing problem in Haemosporida taxonomy. The few morphological characters used can overlap, and the significance of some life-history traits is not fully understood. Morphologically identical lizard Plasmodium forms have been reported infecting different cell types (red and white blood cells) in the same host and have been considered the same species. An example is Plasmodium tropiduri tropiduri, a species known to infect erythrocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocyte-like cells. Here, both forms of P. t. tropiduri were analysed using light microscope-based morphological characteristics and phylogenetic inferences based on almost complete mitochondrial genomes of parasites naturally infecting lizards in southeastern Brazil. Although morphologically similar, two distinct phylogenetic lineages infecting erythrocytes and non-erythrocytic cells were found. The lineage found in the erythrocytes forms a monophyletic group with species from Colombia. However, the non-erythrocytic lineage shares a recent common ancestor with Plasmodium leucocytica, which infects leucocytes in lizards from the Caribbean islands. Here, Plasmodium ouropretensis n. sp. is described as a species that infects thrombocytes and lymphocyte-like cells.
This study aimed to compare fruits and vegetables (FV), and carbonated soft drink (CSD) consumption among adolescents from seventy-four countries, according to macroeconomic indicators. This is an ecological study, developed with countries evaluated through the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2003–2014) and the National School Health Survey (PeNSE-Brazil, 2015). The percentages of students in each country who consumed CSD and FV daily and their association with the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gross National Income per capita (GNIpc) were assessed. Scatter plots were constructed for each marker, and a multilevel model was tested to consider the effects of region in the associations. The overall prevalence of daily CSD consumption was 54·1 %. CSD consumption was positively associated with HDI and GNIpc through multilevel models, and Central and South America showed a considerable higher consumption compared with other regions. Overall, FV daily consumption was 67·9 % and 74·6 %, respectively, and no associations with macroeconomic indicators were found. The study shows concerning rates of CSD consumption among adolescents, and a trend of increased consumption with the improvement of the country’s development and GNIpc. This points for the importance of public policies that regulate food and beverage industries to reduce CSD consumption and related co-morbidities among adolescents.
The consumption of nuts and extra-virgin olive oil has been associated with suppression of inflammatory pathways that contribute to atherosclerosis, but its role on the modulation of the inflammatory profile in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding pecan nuts or extra-virgin olive oil to a healthy diet on inflammatory markers in patients with stable CAD. In this randomised clinical trial, 204 patients were enrolled to three study groups: sixty seven to control group (CG: healthy diet), sixty eight to pecan nuts group (PNG: 30 g/d of pecans + healthy diet) and sixty nine to extra-virgin olive oil group (OOG: 30 ml/d of extra-virgin olive oil + healthy diet). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, in mg/l), fibrinogen (mg/dl), IL 2, 4, 6, 10 (pg/ml) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, in pg/ml), IL-6/IL-10, IL-2/IL-4 and IFN-/γIL-4 ratios were evaluated at baseline and after the follow-up (12 weeks). As main results, after adjustment for sex, statin used and relative body weight variation, there were no differences between groups regarding inflammatory markers at the end of the study. IL-6 levels (primary outcome) were reduced in 12 weeks when compared with baseline in all study groups (CG: difference: −0·593 (se = 0·159) pg/dL; PNG: difference: −0·335 (se = 0·143) pg/dl; OOG: IL-6 difference: −0·325 (se = 0·143) pg/dl). In conclusion, there was no significant effect of including pecan nuts or extra virgin olive oil to a healthy diet on inflammatory markers in individuals with CAD.
Maternal nutrition is critical in mammalian development, influencing the epigenetic reprogramming of gametes, embryos, and fetal programming. We evaluated the effects of different levels of sulfur (S) and cobalt (Co) in the maternal diet throughout the pre- and periconceptional periods on the biochemical and reproductive parameters of the donors and the DNA methylome of the progeny in Bos indicus cattle. The low-S/Co group differed from the control with respect to homocysteine, folic acid, B12, insulin growth factor 1, and glucose. The oocyte yield was lower in heifers from the low S/Co group than that in the control heifers. Embryos from the low-S/Co group exhibited 2320 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the genome compared with the control embryos. We also characterized candidate DMRs linked to the DNMT1 and DNMT3B genes in the blood and sperm cells of the adult progeny. A DMR located in DNMT1 that was identified in embryos remained differentially methylated in the sperm of the progeny from the low-S/Co group. Therefore, we associated changes in specific compounds in the maternal diet with DNA methylation modifications in the progeny. Our results help to elucidate the impact of maternal nutrition on epigenetic reprogramming in livestock, opening new avenues of research to study the effect of disturbed epigenetic patterns in early life on health and fertility in adulthood. Considering that cattle are physiologically similar to humans with respect to gestational length, our study may serve as a model for studies related to the developmental origin of health and disease in humans.
Tympanostomy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in otolaryngology, and its complexity is challenging for trainee surgeons. Investing in medical education is a cornerstone of good patient safety practices. For trainees, use of simulators before operating on actual patients helps mitigate risks. This study aimed to develop a three-dimensional printed model simulator for myringotomy, tympanostomy and ventilation tube placement.
An articulated model with a detachable portion, base and plastic bag to simulate the external auditory canal, middle ear and tympanic membrane, respectively, was modelled and printed.
The final simulator was made from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene polymer and measured 4 × 4 × 12 cm. It was designed to mimic the angulation of patient anatomy in the myringotomy position and simulate the texture and colour of the tissues of interest. The cost was low, and testing with an operating microscope and endoscope yielded satisfactory results. The advent of three-dimensional printing technology has made surgical simulation more accessible and less expensive, providing several advantages for medical education.
The proposed model fulfilled expectations as a safe, inexpensive, reproducible, user-friendly and accessible surgical education tool that can be improved and reassessed for further research.
To analyse trends of social inequality in breastfeeding and infant formula (IF) use in Latin America between 1990 and 2010 decades.
Time-series cross-sectional study with data from Demographic and Health Surveys. We described the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), breastfeeding between 6 and 12 months (BF6-12) and IF for infants under 6 months (IF < 6) and between 6 and 12 months (IF6-12). Social inequalities were assessed using the slope index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (CIX). Trends in the prevalence of breastfeeding, IF and index of social inequality were analysed by a linear regression model with weighted least squares variance.
Bolivia, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Haiti and Peru.
51·358 alive infants younger than 12 months.
Five countries showed an increasing trend for EBF and BF6-12, four increased for IF < 6 and six for IF6-12. Simultaneous decrease in IF < 6 (Colombia: −0·3/year; Haiti: −0·02/year) and increase in EBF (Colombia: +2·0/year; Haiti: +1·9/year) were observed only in two countries. EBF prevalence was high in the lowest income quintiles in five countries, and IF prevalence was high in the highest income quintiles in all countries and over the decades. For BF6-12, a decrease in inequality (prevalence increased in the highest quintile) was observed in Guatemala (SII1995 = −0·42; SII2015 = −0·28) and the Dominican Republic (SII1996 = −0·54; SII2013 = −0·26). Guatemala was the only country showing a decrease in inequality for BF (SII = −0·005; CIX = −0·0035) and an increase for IF (SII = 0·022; CIX = 0·01).
The inequality in BF and IF remained over time. However, inequality in IF < 6 has decreased because low-income infants have increased use and high-income infants have decreased.
To identify dietary patterns and prospectively evaluate their influence on the BMI Z-score of adolescents.
A longitudinal study, using data from the Longitudinal Study on Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, Eating Habits and Adolescent Health – LONCAAFS.
To obtain data on food consumption, a 24-h recall survey was conducted; a second 24-h recall was applied to 30 % of the sample in all waves. Dietary patterns were identified by exploratory factor analysis using principal components. BMI Z-score was determined according to the recommendation of the WHO, based on the BMI for age and sex. Socio-economic data, sedentary behaviour and physical activity level were obtained. Associations between BMI Z-score and dietary patterns and between BMI Z-score and variables of interest were determined using generalised estimating equations.
Totally, 1431 adolescents were assessed in 2014, 1178 in 2015, 959 in 2016 and 773 in 2017, belonging to the public schools of João Pessoa, Northeast Brazil.
Three dietary patterns were identified throughout the study: ‘traditional’, ‘snacks’ and ‘Western’. The ‘Western’ dietary pattern was positively associated with BMI Z-score (β = 0·025; 95 % CI 0·002, 0·048), regardless of sex and physical activity level, prospectively.
A dietary pattern composed of foods with high energy density, high fat and sugars, and low fibre influences the BMI Z-score of adolescents over time.
The production of specialty coffee has several factors and parameters that are added up in the course of production, so that the quality is expressed in the act of consumption. Based on this scenario, this study included the analysis of ten genotypes of arabica coffee, the materials being subjected to irrigated and rainfed water regimes, in a low altitude region, to identify responses for sensory and physical–chemical quality. The genotypes were evaluated in a split-plot scheme with a randomized block design, with three replications. Arabica coffee fruits were harvested with 80% cherry seeds and processed by the wet method. Subsequently, the characteristics related to physical–chemical and sensory analyses were evaluated. The genotypes of the Paraíso group showed great variability for the physical–chemical and sensory variables for rainfed and irrigated regimes. The genotypes of the Catuaí group, however, showed less variability for sensory characteristics in both cultivation environments and for physical–chemical characteristics in the irrigated regime. In the sensorial data set, the genotypes Catuaí 144 CCF and Catuaí 144 SFC (when irrigated) and Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-2, Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-11 and Catucaí 24-137 (rainfed cultivation), are more favourable to the production of specialty coffee at low altitude.
To describe the duration of breast-feeding between 1990 and 2013 and to estimate the association between breast-feeding duration and sociodemographic, health and pro-breast-feeding policies and programmes in Latin American countries.
This is a cross-sectional study with data from Demographic and Health Surveys programme conducted in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Dominican Republic between 1990 and 2013. The median duration of breast-feeding was estimated by survival analysis. Information on pro-breast-feeding policies and programmes was extracted from the World on Breastfeeding Trends Initiative (WBTi) tool. The association between the duration of breast-feeding and WBTi tool score was analysed by multilevel survival regression.
Nationally representative cross-sectional survey from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Dominican Republic.
We included children under 24 months of age, totalling 17 318 children.
Breast-feeding duration showed a significant increase in all countries, except the Dominican Republic. Mothers with higher schooling level (HR = 1·66; 95 % CI 1·35, 2·04), higher income (HR = 1·58; 95 % CI 1·40, 1·77) and overweight (HR = 1·14; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·23) breastfed for a shorter time. Breast-feeding in the first hour of life (HR = 0·79; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·83) was associated with increase in the duration of breast-feeding. Regarding WBTi, Peru presented the lowest score and the Dominican Republic presented the highest score. WBTi score was inversely related to the duration of breast-feeding for this set of countries (HR = 1·07; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·12).
Mothers with better socio-economic conditions and overweight breastfed for a shorter time. Breast-feeding in the first hour was associated with longer duration of breast-feeding. In this set of countries, higher scores from WBTi tool did not result in longer duration of breast-feeding.
Eriocitrin is a citrus flavonoid with a high capacity to reduce the oxidative stress related to metabolic disorders and obesity. We assessed the effects of low doses of eriocitrin on the oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolism of glucose and lipids of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice. Fifty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into five groups (n 10). The mice were fed an HFD (45 % kcal from fat, i.e. lard) for 4 weeks for obesity induction. After this period, the mice continued receiving the same HFD, but supplemented with eriocitrin at 10, 25 or 100 mg/kg body weight (bw) for an additional 4 weeks. Control groups were fed with standard diet (10 % kcal of fat, i.e. soy oil) or with HFD without eriocitrin, for eight consecutive weeks. At the end of the study, mice supplemented with eriocitrin showed lower levels of blood serum glucose and blood and liver triacylglycerols (P < 0⋅05). There was also improved levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, total-cholesterol, resistin and lipid peroxidation in the supplemented mice. It was concluded that the 25 mg dose of eriocitrin improved all the parameters studied and had positive effects on oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and metabolism of lipids and glucose in general.
Background: Loss of a spouse is a frequent occurrence in later life, with about 10% of the individuals finding themselves unable to cope and progressing to prolonged grief, risking further mental and physical problems.
Objective: The development and implementation of an online grief program, such as LEAVES (optimizing the menta L hEalth and resilience of older Adults that haVe lost th Eir spou Se via blended, online therapy), intends to improve prevention and treatment of prolonged grief, so that elderly mourners can continue to lead an active, meaningful and dignified life.
Methods: The LEAVES program, a project under AAL (Active and Assisted Living) 2019 Call for Sustainable Smart Solutions for Ageing Well, is in development by an international consortium and integrates academical, clinical and technical experts. The project will take place between February 2020 and January 2023 and involve real-life evaluation of 315 end-users. The Psychiatric Department at the Health Unit of Baixo Alentejo (ULSBA) will offer the service to its primary users, blending online services with telephone, video calls and face-to-face sessions. Widowed older adults >65 that express the need for help in mourning their spouse will be recruited in the community as well as via the geriatric psychiatry team and primary care.
Results: With LEAVES program we aim for older adults to process the loss of a spouse in a blended online/presential environment, detecting olders at risk for complications, reveal negative trends in their emotional life, and act to counter such trends. The evaluation will focus on wellbeing and involve several measures to assess grief symptoms, loneliness, hopelessness, satisfaction and quality of life. Conclusions: ULSBA will use LEAVES to improve clinical practice on preventing and managing prolonged grief as well as, after testing and validating it in this project, to save economical costs and improve effectiveness, both to hospital and patients.