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While the firm-level distributional consequences of market liberalization are well understood, previous studies have paid only limited attention to how variations in domestic institutions across countries affect the winners and losers from opening up to trade. We argue that the presence of coordinated wage-bargaining institutions, which impose a ceiling on wage increases, and state-subsidized vocational training, which creates a large supply of highly skilled workers, generate labor market frictions. Upward wage rigidity, in particular, helps smaller firms weather the rising competition and increasing labor costs triggered by trade liberalization. We test this hypothesis using a firm-level data set of European Union countries, which includes more than 800,000 manufacturing firms between 2003 and 2014. We find that, for productive firms, gains from trade are 20 percent larger in countries with liberal market economies than they are in coordinated market economies. Symmetrically, less productive firms in coordinated market economies experience significantly smaller revenue losses compared to liberal market economies. We show that both the presence of an institutionalized wage ceiling and the availability of subsidized vocational training are key mechanisms for reducing the reallocation of revenue from unproductive to productive firms in coordinated market economies compared to liberal market economies. In line with our theory, we find that wages and employment in liberalized industries increase differentially across both types of labor markets. Finally, we provide suggestive evidence that trade liberalization triggers a differential demand for redistribution at the individual level across different labor markets, which is in line with our firm-level analysis.
We consider the reduction of an elliptic curve defined over the rational numbers modulo primes in a given arithmetic progression and investigate how often the subgroup of rational points of this reduced curve is cyclic.
In this research communication we report on the diversity of yeast and mould species in 69 samples of milk and different dairy products from three plants located in Umbria, central Italy. Isolates were characterised both macroscopically and microscopically and then identified by PCR and genome sequencing of the ITS region and the D1–D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene for filamentous fungi and yeasts, respectively. Out of the 69 samples analysed, 51 (73.9%) tested positive for the presence of yeasts, whereas moulds were detected in 25 (36.2%) samples. A total of 9 yeast species belonging to 8 different genera and 13 mould species belonging to 6 different genera were isolated. The most common genera isolated were Debaryomyces and Kluyveromyces among the yeasts and Penicillium and Galactomyces among the moulds. Microbiota play a key role in the formation of flavour, aroma, texture and appearance of dairy products. This complex microbial ecosystem includes both cultured and external bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Some of them have an important role in the production of cheeses, whereas others are responsible for dairy product spoilage, resulting in significant food waste and economic losses. Some species can produce mycotoxins, representing a potential hazard for the consumer's safety. This study provides interesting information on the diversity of fungi species in dairy products from central Italy that can be of major importance to identify these products and to develop adequate strategies for fungal spoilage control and consumer safety.
This study aimed to evaluate and compare cases of simultaneous and consecutive bilateral cochlear implantation from the perspective of the duration of anaesthesia, surgical complications and hospitalisation.
Fifty patients with simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation (group 1) and 47 patients with consecutive bilateral cochlear implantation (group 2) were included in this study. The two groups were compared in terms of the duration of anaesthesia, the duration of surgery, radiological findings, the complications and the post-operative hospitalisation time.
Group 1 had a significantly shorter operation time than group 2 (p < 0.01). The mean total operation time was 189 minutes in group 1. In group 2, the mean operation times for the first and second surgery were 134 minutes and 136 minutes, respectively, and the total operation time for both surgical procedures in group 2 was 270 minutes. The duration of post-operative hospitalisation of the patients in group 1 was significantly shorter than the total post-operative hospitalisation after both operations for the patients in group 2 (p < 0.01).
In conclusion, if there is no anatomical problem that may lead to a prolonged operation time or any risk regarding anaesthesia, simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation can be performed safely.
The impact of climate change on agricultural productivity is difficult to assess. However, determining the possible effects of climate change is an absolute necessity for planning by decision-makers. The aim of the study was the evaluation of the CSM-CROPGRO-Sunflower model of DSSAT4.7 and the assessment of impact of climate change on sunflower yield under future climate projections. For this purpose, a 2-year sunflower field experiment was conducted under semi-arid conditions in the Konya province of Turkey. Rainfed and irrigated treatments were used for model analysis. For the assessment of impact of climate change, three global climate models and two representative concentration pathways, i.e. 4.5 and 8.5 were selected. The evaluation of the model showed that the model was able to simulate yield reasonably well, with normalized root mean square error of 1.3% for the irrigated treatment and 17.7% for the rainfed treatment, a d-index of 0.98 and a modelling efficiency of 0.93 for the overall model performance. For the climate change scenarios, the model predicted that yield will decrease in a range of 2.9–39.6% under rainfed conditions and will increase in a range of 7.4–38.5% under irrigated conditions. Results suggest that temperature increases due to climate change will cause a shortening of plant growth cycles. Projection results also confirmed that increasing temperatures due to climate change will cause an increase in sunflower water requirements in the future. Thus, the results reveal the necessity to apply adequate water management strategies for adaptation to climate change for sunflower production.
How does the symbolic power of a female president affect female parliamentary behavior? Whereas female descriptive representation has increased around the world, women parliamentarians still face significant discrimination and stereotyping, inhibiting their ability to have a real voice and offer “thick” representation to women voters. We leverage the case of Malawi, a case where the presidency changed hands from a man to a woman through a truly exogenous shock, to study the effect of a female president on female parliamentary behavior. Drawing on unique parliamentary transcripts data, we argue and show that women MPs under a female president become empowered and less confined to stereotypical gendered issue-ownership patterns, leading to a significant increase in female MP speech making. Our results directly address theories of symbolic representation by focusing particularly on intraelite role-model effects.
Ventricular repolarisation changes may lead to sudden cardiac death in obese individuals. We aimed to investigate the relationship between ventricular repolarisation changes, echocardiographic parameters, anthropometric measures, and metabolic syndrome laboratory parameters in obese children.
The study involved 81 obese and 82 normal-weight healthy children with a mean age of 12.3 ± 2.7 years. Anthropometric measurements of participants were evaluated according to nomograms. Obese patients were subdivided into two groups; metabolic syndrome and non-metabolic syndrome obese. Fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, and lipid profile were measured. QT/QTc interval, QT/QTc dispersions were measured, and left ventricular systolic and diastolic measurements were performed.
Body weight, body mass index, relative body mass index, waist/hip circumference ratio, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in obese children. QT and QTc dispersions were significantly higher in obese children and also obese children with metabolic syndrome had significantly higher QT and QTc dispersions compared to non-metabolic syndrome obese children (p < 0.001) and normal-weight healthy children (p < 0.001). Waist/hip circumference ratio, body mass index, and relative body mass index were the most important determinant of QT and QTc dispersions. Left ventricular wall thickness (left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole, left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-systole, interventricular septal thickness at end-diastole) and left ventricular mass index were significantly higher and ejection fraction was lower in obese children. Left ventricular mass index and interventricular septal thickness at end-diastole were positively correlated with QT and QTc dispersions.
Our study demonstrated that QT/ QTc interval prolongation and increase in QT and QTc dispersion on electrocardiogram may be found at an early age in obese children.
Continents grow mainly through magmatism, relamination, accretionary prism development, sediment underplating, tectonic accretion of seamounts, oceanic plateaus and oceanic lithosphere, and collisions of island arcs at convergent margins. The modern Pacific–Rim subduction zone environments present a natural laboratory to examine the nature of these processes. The papers in this special issue focus on the: (1) modern and ancient accretionary margins of Japan; (2) arc–continent collision zone in the Taiwan orogenic belt; (3) accreting versus non-accreting convergent margins of the Americas; and (4) several examples of ancient convergent margins of East Asia. Subduction erosion and sediment underplating are important processes, affecting the melt evolution of arc magmas by giving them special crustal isotopic characteristics. Oblique arc–continent collisions cause strong deformation partitioning that results in orogen-parallel extension, crustal exhumation and wrench faulting in the hinterland, and thrust faulting–folding in the foreland. Trench-parallel widths of subducting slabs exert major control on slab geometries, the degree of coupling–decoupling between the lower and upper plates, and subduction velocity partitioning. An initially large width of the subducting Palaeo-Pacific Plate against East Asia caused flat subduction and resistance to slab rollback during the Triassic Period. These conditions resulted in shortening across SE China. Foundering and delamination of the flat slab during the Early Jurassic Epoch led to slab segmentation and reduced slab widths, followed by slab steepening and rollback. This pull-away tectonics induced lithospheric extension and magmatism in SE China during Late Jurassic – Cretaceous time. Melting of subducted carbonaceous sediments commonly produces networks of silicate veins in CLM that may subsequently undergo partial melting, producing ultrapotassic magmas.
Our field-based geochemical studies of the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous granitoids on Hainan Island indicate that their magmas had different geochemical affinities, changing from alkaline in the Triassic through ocean island basalt (OIB) in the Jurassic, to calc-alkaline in the Cretaceous. We show that these changes in the geochemical affinities of the Mesozoic granitoids on Hainan and in SE China reflect different melt sources and melt evolution patterns through time. Our new geodynamic model suggests that: (1) Triassic geology was controlled by flat-slab subduction of the palaeo-Pacific plate beneath SE China. This slab dynamics resulted in strong coupling between the lower and upper plates, causing push-over tectonics and contractional deformation in SE China. Flat subduction-induced edge flow and aesthenospheric uprising led to the production of high-K granites, syenites and mafic rocks. (2) Slab foundering, accelerated subduction rates and subduction hinge retreat in the Early Jurassic caused rapid rollback of the downgoing slab. Strong decoupling of the upper and lower plates resulted in pull-away tectonics, producing extensional deformation in SE China. Decompression melting of the upwelling aesthenosphere produced OIB-type melts, which interacted with the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) to form A- and I-type granitoids. (3) Segmentation of the palaeo-Pacific plate in the Early Cretaceous resulted in steeply dipping slabs and their faster rollback, facilitating lithospheric-scale extension and oceanward migration of calc-alkaline magmatism. This extensional deformation played a significant role in the formation of metamorphic core complexes, widespread crustal melting and development of a Basin and Range-type tectonics and landscape evolution in SE China.
Sustainable development provisions have become an integral part of the European Union's (EU's) ‘new generation’ trade agreements. Yet, a growing number of empirical works show that their design varies significantly, even in the trade agreements signed with countries at similar (low) levels of development. We contend that this variation can be accounted for by discussing how the growing integration of the EU economy with specific developing countries across global value chains (GVCs) affects the domestic politics of regulatory export in the EU. European firms that operate within GVCs rely on imports of inputs produced in low-labor cost countries. These firms tend to oppose the export of those regulatory burdens that generate an increase in their imports' variable costs. The political mobilization of these actors weakens domestic coalitions supporting regulatory export strategies, which explains why the EU adopts a more lenient approach over the inclusion of sustainable development provisions in Preferential Trade Agreement negotiations with some developing countries.
In the aftermath of the Global Financial Crisis and, more recently, the COVID-19 pandemic, scepticism on the merits of trade and globalization has increased across several key developed countries. This poses major challenges for multinational enterprises (MNEs) and other trade dependent firms (TDFs). This paper develops a framework to explore corporate nonmarket strategies (NMS) to address this backlash, covering both corporate political activity (CPA) and corporate social responsibility (CSR). We firstly provide an overview of the existing research within international economics, business strategy, and international political economy on the antiglobalization backlash and MNEs/TDFs strategy in the face of protectionism. Building on this scholarship, we formulate propositions for CPA and CSR actions, which are likely to be deployed by TDFs in developed economies to counter protectionism and address the criticisms of the antiglobalization movement. On this basis we propose an interdisciplinary analytical framework that can be used to study corporate strategy in times of growing antitrade sentiments. Finally, we provide initial proposals for testing these propositions and highlight the challenges researchers may face when carrying out such research.
From the technical analyses of wide ranges of scholars to the public discourse backlashes against globalization, there is a huge volume of work historicizing, quantifying, and problematizing the complex role of multinational corporations (MNCs) in international trade. The body of literature is so large that most readers rely on disciplinary boundaries to narrow the catalog, causing them to miss out on important synergies across fields. By bringing the work of historians, lawyers, and political scientists working on MNCs and international trade into conversation, we offer an expanded perspective. Our collective contribution highlights the political dimensions of MNCs within the frameworks of global economic governance, in which corporations seek to influence trade policies amid rising protectionism and coordinate their activities within industry associations while regulators struggle to hold MNC parent companies accountable to international human rights violations across their value chains. Especially in this moment of re-evaluation — and possible de-globalization following the shock of COVID-19 — our multidisciplinary analysis explains how MNCs exerted political power over trade regimes in the past, by what means they seek to shape regulatory frameworks in the present, and what the possible futures might be for big business operations in a more or less global economy.
The corporate responsibility to respect human rights was formally introduced in 2011 with the unanimous endorsement of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) by the UN Human Rights Council. It is grounded in social expectations and forms part of the companies' “social license to operate.” This paper argues that this responsibility is progressively turning into a legal duty for lead companies to respect human rights in those types of value chains which are characterized by a high level of control by a lead company over its business partners. Our argument rests on two recent legal developments. Firstly, the article analyzes the judicialization of the corporate responsibility to respect in the case law on parent company liability in various jurisdictions, which, we argue, is highly likely to have some implications in relation to certain types of value chains so as to trigger the liability of lead companies for the human rights harms arising out of the activities of entities over which they exercise sufficient control. Secondly, the article delves into the legislative developments which increasingly require lead companies to exercise due diligence so as to prevent and address adverse human rights impacts in their own activities and global value chains.
During the last decade, we have seen an increased opposition to globalization. Within this wave of criticism, firms and more specifically multinational corporations have been major targets, accused of multiple wrongdoings, such as social dumping, fiscal evasion, job cuts, trade deficits, abuses of power, and environmental damages. In many respects, this debate echoes the one that took place during the 1970s with respect to oil shocks, de-industrialization, and imperialism. At that time, several international organizations, such as the OECD, ECOSOC, ILO, and the European Community started to address the issue of multinationals and international investments, and advocated for the creation of guidelines to regulate their activities. The following paper explores the reactions of Swiss multinationals to these attempts, as well as their strategies for protecting their latitude in conducting business. Relying on archival material of the Swiss Union of Commerce and Industry and of the Federal Archives, this paper shows how the biggest companies in the pharmaceutical, machine, and food processing industries—all of them still being global players —decided to create a task force to deal with these emerging regulations at the international level.
Senning operation is a surgical treatment for transposition of great arteries that can be complicated by post-procedural atrial or caval baffle leaks. We present a 6-year-old boy with a history of Senning repair for transposition of great arteries, who developed a pulmonary venous baffle leak. Percutaneous baffle leak closure was successfully performed using an Amplatzer septal occluder.
To determine the prevalence and distribution of inner-ear malformations in congenital single-sided deafness cases, as details of malformation type are crucial for disease prognosis and management.
A retrospective study was conducted of 90 patients aged under 16 years with congenital single-sided deafness. Radiological findings were evaluated using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Inner-ear malformations were identified and cochlear nerve status was determined in affected ears.
Out of 90 ears, 42 (46.7 per cent) were found to have inner-ear malformation. Isolated cochlear aperture stenosis was the most common anomaly (n = 18, 20 per cent), followed by isolated cochlear aperture atresia (n = 11, 12.2 per cent) and cochlear hypoplasia (n = 7, 7.8 per cent). Cochlear nerve deficiency was encountered in 41 ears (45.6 per cent). The internal auditory canal was also stenotic in 49 ears (54.4 per cent).
Inner-ear malformations, especially cochlear aperture anomalies, are involved in the aetiology of single-sided deafness more than expected. The cause of single-sided deafness differs greatly between congenital and adult-onset cases. All children with single-sided deafness should undergo radiological evaluation, as the prognosis and management, as well as the aetiology, may be significantly influenced by inner-ear malformation type.
The globalization of production is changing the political economy of trade policymaking: Traditional supporters of free trade (exporters seeking market access in foreign countries) are joined by new actors (companies needing intermediates from abroad for their production processes) in their lobbying efforts for trade liberalization. Multinational corporations (MNCs) play a crucial role in this new alliance due to their strong involvement in international trade and endowment with resources that can be used to lobby policymakers. We derive an argument from these premises that leads to the expectation of variation in trade policy outcomes across industries depending on their degree of integration in a global network of multinational corporations. Disaggregated data on the level of tariffs and speed of tariff cuts in preferential trade agreements, international mergers and acquisitions at the firm level, and MNC imports of intermediates by sector allow us to test the argument. The findings support our theoretical expectations. The paper sheds light on the processes and outcomes of trade policymaking in a globalized economy by further developing an existing argument about GVCs and trade policy outcomes as well as expanding on it by adding data on international corporate connections.
Burnout is a syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and mental weariness as a consequence of chronic stress. Chronic stress is known to affect HPA-axis. Studies on HPA-axis functioning in burnout have produced inconsistent results. BDNF is one of the trophic factors involved in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and is believed to decrease as a consequence of chronic stress mediated by hyperactivation of the HPA-axis. The aetiological relationship between the serum level of BDNF and burnout has not yet been studied.
37 clinically diagnosed burnout participants were compared with 35 healthy controls. Basal serum cortisol, sBDNF, and cortisol level after 1mg dexamethasone suppression test were sampled.
We found no significant differences in terms of HPA-axis functioning, but we did find significantly lower levels of sBDNF compared between burnout participants and controls (p=0.005). sBDNF levels correlated significantly with scores of three dimensions of Maslach Burnout Inventory. HPA-axis function and sBDNF were not affected by the presence of a current psychiatric disorder. Depression, depersonalization and competence scores were found to be the most important predicting variables of burnout.
Our results suggest that there was no dysregulation in the HPA-axis of burnout participants. However, BDNF and hippocampal neurogenesis seem to be important in the aetiology of burnout. Though BDNF is a novel way to investigate the possible aetiology of burnout, further research concerning the role of BDNF in the neurobiology of burnout is needed.