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Tooth enamel and dentin are the most studied hard tissues used to explore hominin evolution, life history, diet, health, and culture. Surprisingly, cementum (the interface between the alveolar bone and the root dentin) remains the least studied dental tissue even though its unique growth, which is continuous throughout life, has been acknowledged since the 1950s. This interdisciplinary volume presents state-of-the-art studies in cementum analysis and its broad interpretative potential in anthropology. The first section focuses on cementum biology; the second section presents optimized multi-species and standardized protocols to estimate age and season at death precisely. The final section highlights innovative applications in zooarchaeology, paleodemography, bioarchaeology, paleoanthropology, and forensic anthropology, demonstrating how cementochronology can profoundly affect anthropological theories. With a wealth of illustrations of cementum histology and accompanying online resources, this book provides the perfect toolkit for scholars interested in studying past and current human and animal populations.
The Art of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is an engaging and authoritative account of the essential skills required to practice child and adolescent psychiatry for all those working in children's mental health, from trainees to experienced professionals in paediatrics, psychiatry, psychology, and psychotherapy. The practical tasks of meeting the child and family, planning treatments, and working with colleagues are all covered, building on existing texts that mainly focus on diagnostic criteria, protocols, and laws. This book respects the evidence base, while also pointing out its limitations, and suggests ways in which to deal with these. Psychiatry is placed within broader frameworks including strategy, learning, management, philosophy, ethics, and interpersonal relations. With over 200 educational vignettes of the authors' vast experience in the field, the book is also highly illustrated. The Art of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is an indispensable guide to thoughtful practice in children's mental health.
Modelling knowledge as revelation and theology as poetry, this powerful new reading of the Vita nuova not only challenges Dante scholars to reconsider the book's speculative emphases but also offers the general reader an accessible yet penetrating exploration of some of the Western tradition's most far-reaching ideas surrounding love and knowledge. Dante's 'little book', included in full here in an original parallel translation, captures in its first emergence the same revolutionary ferment that would later become manifest both in the larger oeuvre of this great European writer and in the literature of the entire Western canon. William Franke demonstrates how Dante's youthful poetic autobiography disrupts sectarian thinking and reconciles the seeming contraries of divine revelation and human invention, while also providing the means for understanding religious revelation in the Bible. Ultimately, this revolutionary unification of Scripture and poetry shows the intimate working of love at the source of inspired knowing.
In Canto XVIII of Paradiso, Dante sees thirty-five letters of Scripture - LOVE JUSTICE, YOU WHO RULE THE EARTH - 'painted' one after the other in the sky. It is an epiphany that encapsulates the Paradiso, staging its ultimate goal - the divine vision. This book offers a fresh, intensive reading of this extraordinary passage at the heart of the third canticle of the Divine Comedy. While adapting in novel ways the methods of the traditional lectura Dantis, William Franke meditates independently on the philosophical, theological, political, ethical, and aesthetic ideas that Dante's text so provocatively projects into a multiplicity of disciplinary contexts. This book demands that we question not only what Dante may have meant by his representations, but also what they mean for us today in the broad horizon of our intellectual traditions and cultural heritage.
Measurement burst designs, in which assessments of a set of constructs are made at two or more times in quick succession (e.g., within days), can be used as a novel method to improve the stability of basic measures typically used in longitudinal peer research. In this Element, we hypothesized that the stabilities for adolescent-reported peer acceptance, anxiety, and self-concept would be stronger when using the measurement burst approach versus the single time observation. Participants included youth between 10 and 13 years old who completed (a) sociometric assessments of acceptance, and measures of (b) social and test anxiety, and (c) self-concept across three times with two assessments made at each burst. Findings broadly showed that the stabilities were significantly stronger with the measurement burst when compared to the single time assessment, supporting our main hypothesis. We discuss the utility of the measurement burst in a broader context and considerations for researchers.
Militant groups often use violence, perversely, to gain attention and resources. In this book, the authors analyze how terrorist and rebel organizations compete with one another to secure funding and supporters. The authors develop a strategic model of competitive violence among militant groups and test the model's implications with statistical analysis and case studies. A series of model extensions allow the authors to incorporate the full range of strategic actors, focusing in particular on government efforts to counter and deter violence. The results indicate that the direct effects of competition are not as clear as they may seem, and interventions to alter competitive incentives may backfire if states are not careful. This is a timely contribution to a growing body of political economy research on militant group fragmentation, rivalry, fratricide and demonstrative violence.
Global challenges ranging from climate change and ecological regime shifts to refugee crises and post-national territorial claims are rapidly moving ecosystem thresholds and altering the social fabric of societies worldwide. This book addresses the vital question of how to navigate the contested forces of stability and change in a world shaped by multiple interconnected global challenges. It proposes that senses of place is a vital concept for supporting individual and social processes for navigating these contested forces and encourages scholars to rethink how to theorise and conceptualise changes in senses of place in the face of global challenges. It also makes the case that our concepts of sense of place need to be revisited, given that our experiences of place are changing. This book is essential reading for those seeking a new understanding of the multiple and shifting experiences of place.
Responses to experimental writing by Irish women poets have tended to be framed in terms of the American tradition. This has served to obscure the distinctiveness of these poets, both as a strand of the Irish tradition and among themselves, in the highly individual bodies of work produced by Susan Howe, Maggie O’Sullivan, and Catherine Walsh. The American-born Howe has been linked to the Language poets, but represents a complex intertwining of personal history and literary exchanges between Ireland and the United States. With its heavy use of parataxis and open-field poetics, Howe’s work opens itself up to wide historical vistas. O’Sullivan’s work, written from England, also stresses open-field forms while showing affinities with the sound poetry of Bob Cobbing and the ‘antiabsorptive’ poetics of Charles Bernstein. Nevertheless, the connection with the Irish tradition is strongly stressed, as is the case also with Catherine Walsh. Walsh’s writing on Dublin is unique in modern Irish writing, notably in its focus on minority and marginalised communities. In the ‘forms of attention’ required by all three writers, Irish women’s poetry remakes itself in unexpected and fascinating ways.
Upon first glance, this book may seem like an odd fit—Polynesia and the Middle Ages. Because the Middle Ages are a European phenomenon surely? While this is true, much is lost by limiting our perspective to one continent. Europe is not the natural centre of the world it has been constructed as, not least by historians.
This book therefore attempts to present the views and understandings of the South Polynesians between 900 and 1600 CE. One of the tribes I descend from is one of the first groups to inhabit the northern South Island of Aotearoa New Zealand: Ko Ngāti Kuia, he iwi Pakohe, he iwi karakia e (Ngāti Kuia, the tribe of Pakohe [argillite], the tribe of prayer). I also descend from Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō, Rangitāne o Wairau, and Ngāti Koata, in the northern South Island. It is from my position as an Indigenous woman working in contemporary Aotearoa New Zealand that this work emerges.
What follows is intended to provide a short, useful overview of the history of South Polynesia for both the general reader and scholar. It is not intended to be a scientific exercise, which will become clear as the reader progresses through the chapters. Through this work, I aim to give an innovative and unique perspective on South Polynesian history. I hope it encourages the reader to think about regions outside Europe during this period. I also implore the reader to re-evaluate any preconceptions they may have about Polynesia. As one would expect, although the themes and perspec tives are different to those of the European Middle Ages, they are no less valid.
Lastly, it must be noted that this is a new and (it is to be hoped) burgeoning field of research. Material artefacts and literary records are thus far limited, and we can perhaps expect new discoveries that upend the timeline for South Polynesian voyaging and settlement. Similarly, given the brevity of this volume, I cannot cover everything, and the bibliography points the reader towards further research into each theme covered.
Kia heke iho rā i ngā tūpuna, kātahi ka tikaIf handed down by the ancestors, then it would be correct
Journeyed about the earth journeyed about the heavens
The journey of the ancestral god Tānenuiarangi
Who ascended into the heavens to Te Tihi-o-Manano
Where he found the parentless source
From there he retrieved the baskets of knowledge
These were distributed and implanted about the earth
From which came human life
Growing from dim light to full light
There was life.
In this tradition, which I have recounted at the beginning and end of our present book, Tāne ascended to the heavens to retrieve the three baskets of knowledge. Tāne was required to outsmart those standing in his way to get to them. These baskets are te kete tuauri (sacred knowledge/light), te kete tuatea (ancestral knowledge/darkness), and te kete aronui (knowledge in front of us/pursuit). These baskets are thought to never be full, and thus there is always room for further knowledge. The baskets should not be separated, and all three forms of knowledge are essential. Knowledge is not achieved without challenge and questioning, and, just as Tāne ascended to the heavens, we must challenge ourselves and the knowledge we hold, continually seeking to expand our understanding. We must also not discount any form of knowledge, since to seek merely one form is to not appreciate the nature of knowledge.
This short work has attempted to provide a brief overview of South Polynesia from 900 to 1600 CE while also trying to convey the world views of the South Polynesians during this period. Its writing was in response to the global turn in history as a discipline, and more specifically a wider global approach to medieval history. Non-European histories and perspectives have long been subjugated by dominant, external, and often limiting perspectives. I hope that this presentation of South Polynesia has helped a process of historical self-reflection.
In particular, I hope that the nature of non-written source materials and their value has been conveyed. Just like all source material, they have limitations, but these do not outweigh the benefits. In this regard, this book has offered a written account that incorporates oral traditions, historical analysis, and archaeology.
The navigation and voyaging skills of the Polynesians are remarkable. Their voyages to South Polynesia were an impressive technological achievement, unrivalled by their contemporaries. These have been described as “among the greatest acts of voyage and discovery in world history” and have been compared to “modern space travel.” The traditional accounts of migration are well preserved if interpreted correctly. Yet these accounts have been repeatedly misinter-preted and misrepresented by early European scholars. One of the functions of this work is to offer a clear corrective to outdated views which, although challenged by specialists, still retain some influence. This section will provide those unfamiliar with the benefits of oral sources with useful insight on how these can be used. It will be particularly interesting to medievalists, as it is intended to encourage a re-examination of disciplinary boundaries regarding sources. It will then provide an overview of navigational and voyaging techniques used by the Polynesians. The voyages have often been debated, and it was previously argued that the Polynesians merely “drifted” to the South, with early European scholars unable to fathom their voyaging ability. However, it is now largely accepted that the Polynesians deliberately came to South Polynesia and their navigation skills are proven and recognized. This section aims to draw together these threads and highlight the levels of Polynesian technological and navigational accomplishment.
The achievement and skill of the early Polynesian voyagers cannot be overemphasized; reaching South Polynesia was an exceptional accomplishment for the early navigators, particularly when one compares it to what was occurring in the rest of the world during this time. As Jeff Evans writes, “when most European seamen were still hugging the shoreline as they sailed from port to port along their coastlines, the Polynesians had already sailed halfway across the vast Pacific Ocean on voyages of discovery” (Evans, Polynesian Navigation, 15). Some early scholars recognized the achievement of the early Polynesian voyagers, such as Smith who wrote in 1904, “Who, after this, will deny to the Polynesians the honour that is their due as skilful and daring navigators? […] Long before our ancestors had learnt to venture out of sight of land, these bold sailors had explored the Antarctic seas, and traversed the Pacific Ocean from end to end” (Smith, Hawaiki, 130). Yet, many scholars continued to discount the achievements of the early navigators claiming that the journeys must have been accidental, or “drift voyages.”
Adaptation and change are pertinent themes in the history of South Polynesia, a history defined by its short time frame and a significant amount of change. The South Polynesian islands were empty of human habitation and required innovative approaches for the new inhabitants to survive. A limited number of traditions relating to the initial arrival and settlement period exist, compared with traditions of the voyaging period. Part of the reason for this absence is due to one of the purposes of oral tradition, which was intended to recount and retain the information that was necessary to explain the present and how things came to be, not to retain details about day-to-day activities. In this section, the impact of human habitation on South Polynesia will be explored. Adaptation was not a quick process, and full understanding of new environments would have taken generations. When comparisons are made between South Polynesia and other regions, recognition that Polynesians were in completely new environments of which they had limited knowledge is often lacking. Due emphasis will be placed on this crucial factor, which defined the nature of South Polynesian history, and the adaptive skills of the early Indigenous settlers will be highlighted. Perhaps the greatest adaptation to the South Polynesian environment was in terms of subsistence; when people first arrived, they had to rethink everything they knew about food gathering and cultivation to adapt to their new environments.
One of the greatest challenges upon arrival in South Polynesia was the temperate climate. The climatic conditions required extraordinary adaptation from the settlers, who had come from tropical zones, and this drove much of the change that occurred upon initial settlement. Climate determined many aspects of life in South Polynesia, from clothing to technology and shelter. Notably, the climate also required significant adaptation in terms of food and this will be discussed in the following section on subsistence.
Aotearoa New Zealand is a completely temperate landmass in contrast to the rest of Polynesia, which is tropical or subtropical; Rēkohu off the east coast of the South Island has a similar climate. Within Aotearoa New Zealand itself there is significant regional variation in climate: it is much warmer in the North Island, particularly the northernmost part, than in the South. The case of Rapa Nui provides an interesting point of comparison, as it has a subtropical climate.
The global turn in history from the late twentieth century onwards has led to a fascinating corpus of work. In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of research on the concept of the “Global Middle Ages” with it featuring as a major theme of conferences. The Middle Ages is a notoriously Eurocentric field and it has been (wrongly) appropriated by certain hate groups who believe it embodies their desire for a white, Christian, largely male-dominated society. Attempts to globalize the Middle Ages remain somewhat inevitably Eurocentric, whether in focus or by taking the categories that define the European Middle Ages and trying to apply them to non-European cultures. This need not be the case, as medievalists often pride themselves on their ability to understand societies and cultures alien to their own by viewing the Middle Ages from the perspective of those living in the period. These skills of understanding different perspectives could be applied to other regions and cultures. All that is required is an open mind and a recognition of the fundamental concepts that underpin non-European perspectives.
Critical to a global approach is the need to gain an understanding from the perspective of a particular region and culture. Efforts and explicit acknowledgements have been made of the need to incorporate other perspectives, but generally this is limited to Africa and the Americas. Despite these intentions, too often the rich histories of these places have been generalized, oversimplified, and they remain influenced by the Western gaze, while certain areas of the globe remain under-represented or even wholly ignored. For instance, Polynesia has remained largely on the periphery of global history. When it has featured, it has been portrayed in a simplistic and all-encompassing manner that is inaccurate. The real challenge of global history is to write from other perspectives, not write about other places from your own particular world view. It is only through this approach that any depth of understanding can be gained. This book therefore attempts to show how South Polynesians viewed their world from 900 to 1600 CE.
The term Polynesia is itself a Western label and an artificial construct. Just as time periods are constructed, so too are geographical spaces. The term “Polynesia” is derived from the Greek words “poly,” meaning many, and “nesia” for island.