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This report summarizes epidemiological data on nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. NE cases identified in the period 1997–2013 were investigated in parallel with the hantavirus antigen prevalence in small rodents in the study area. A total of 13 930 NE cases were documented in all but one district of Tatarstan, with most cases located in the central and southeastern districts. The NE annual incidence rate exhibited a cyclical pattern, with the highest numbers of cases being registered once in every 3–5 years. The numbers of NE cases rose gradually from July to November, with the highest morbidity in adult males. The highest annual disease incidence rate, 64·4 cases/100 000 population, was observed in 1997, with a total of 2431 NE cases registered. NE cases were mostly associated with visiting forests and agricultural activities. The analysis revealed that the bank vole Myodes glareolus not only comprises the majority of the small rodent communities in the region, but also consistently displays the highest hantavirus prevalence compared to other small rodent species.
A technology of anisotropic etching of GaAs (100) samples with two
different types of geometric disorder (dendrite, quasi-grating) has been
elaborated. The geometric statistical parameters of micro(nano)relief
were investigated using bearing analysis. The measurements of the radii
of curvature have shown that the samples were rather deformed,
with nonuniform strain lateral distribution over the wafer areas.
The radii of curvature were different for different samples, depending
on surface treatment. The X-ray diffraction data indicate that the
subsurface region of anisotropically etched GaAs crystal and epitaxial
films grown on such substrates are not worse than those of a crystal with
smooth chemically polished surface. Geometric disorder of such surfaces
leads to enhancement of the diffuse contributions on the rocking
Investigations of plasma grown native oxides on indium phosphide carried out recently [1,2] have shown that these oxides exhibit properties which are promising to be used in MIS structures on InP, due to their stable composition which includes [InxPyOz]n polyphosphate phase mainly and due to reduced density of interface states (Nss<1011 eV−1 cm−2). It has been shown also that MIS structures with plasma native oxides exhibit C-V characteristics shifted towards positive values of voltage bias. The flat band shift is assigned to a negative charge injected into oxide film during plasma oxidation. The presence of this negative charge in plasma grown native oxides on InP may cause instability of electric properties of MIS structures .
The aim of this work was to make an attempt to influence upon negative effective oxide charge density by means of hydrogen plasma treatment.
Ellipsometry and XPS investigations of RF plasma grown native oxide and C-V measurements of its interface were performed.
Strong dependence of the composition of the plasma grown native oxides and electric properties of MIS structures on the time of plasma treatment has been observed. The greater the content of stable polyphosphate phase of [InxPyOz] is in the native oxide composition, the better parameters of its interface with InP (NS 11 cm−2 eV−1 and the hysteresis of C-V characteristics≤0.2 V) and the lesser C-V drift after treatment may be achieved. Plasma oxidation results in creating a negative effective oxide charge density.
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