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Written by an international team of over sixty experts and drawing on over three thousand scientific studies, this is the first comprehensive global assessment of the political impact of the Sustainable Development Goals, which were launched by the United Nations in 2015. It explores in detail the political steering effects of the Sustainable Development Goals on the UN system and the policies of countries in the Global North and Global South; on institutional integration and policy coherence; and on the ecological integrity and inclusiveness of sustainability policies worldwide. This book is a key resource for scholars, policymakers and activists concerned with the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, and those working in political science, international relations and environmental studies. It is one of a series of publications associated with the Earth System Governance Project. For more publications, see www.cambridge.org/earth-system-governance. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Why do we protect free speech? What values does it serve? How has the Supreme Court interpreted the First Amendment? What has the Court gotten right and wrong? Why are current debates over free expression often so divisive? How can we do better? In this succinct but comprehensive and scholarly book, authors Len Niehoff and Thomas Sullivan tackle these pressing questions. Free Speech: From Core Values to Current Debates traces the development and evolution of the free speech doctrine in the Supreme Court and explores how the Court - with varying levels of success - has applied that doctrinal framework to “hard cases” and current controversies, such as those involving hate speech, speech on the internet, speech on campus, and campaign finance regulation. This is the perfect volume for anyone - student, general reader, or scholar - looking for an accessible overview of this critical topic.
Suitable for graduate students in physics and mathematics, this book presents a concise and pedagogical introduction to string theory. It focuses on explaining the key concepts of string theory, such as bosonic strings, D-branes, supersymmetry and superstrings, and on clarifying the relationship between particles, fields and strings, without assuming an advanced background in particle theory or quantum field theory, making it widely accessible to interested readers from a range of backgrounds. Important ideas underpinning current research, such as partition functions, compactification, gauge symmetries and T-duality are analysed both from the world-sheet (conformal field theory) and the space-time (effective field theory) perspective. Ideal for either self-study or a one semester graduate course, A Short Introduction to String Theory is an essential resource for students studying string theory, containing examples and homework problems to develop understanding, with fully worked solutions available to instructors.
A comprehensive guide on Atomic-Scale Analytical Tomography (ASAT) that discusses basic concepts and implications of the technique in areas such as material sciences, microscopy, engineering sciences and several interdisciplinary avenues. The title interrogates how to successfully achieve ASAT at the intersection of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe microscopy. This novel concept is capable of identifying individual atoms in large volumes as well as in 3D, with high spatial resolution. Written by leading experts from academia and industry, this book serves as a guide with real-world applications on cutting-edge research problems. An essential reading for researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in nanoscale characterisation, this book introduces the reader to a new direction for atomic-scale microscopy.
This volume examines the phenomenon of contemporary Hindu nationalism or 'new Hindutva' that is presently the dominant ideological and political-electoral formation in India. There is a rich body of work on Hindu nationalism, but its main focus is on an earlier moment of insurgent movement politics in the 1980s and 1990s. In contrast, new Hindutva is a governmental formation that converges with wider global currents and enjoys mainstream acceptance. To understand these new political forms and their implications for democratic futures, a fresh set of reflections is in order. This book approaches contemporary Hindutva as an example of a democratic authoritarianism or an authoritarian populism, a politics that simultaneously advances and violates ideas and practices of popular and constitutional democracy.
This book introduces machine learning for readers with some background in basic linear algebra, statistics, probability, and programming. In a coherent statistical framework it covers a selection of supervised machine learning methods, from the most fundamental (k-NN, decision trees, linear and logistic regression) to more advanced methods (deep neural networks, support vector machines, Gaussian processes, random forests and boosting), plus commonly-used unsupervised methods (generative modeling, k-means, PCA, autoencoders and generative adversarial networks). Careful explanations and pseudo-code are presented for all methods. The authors maintain a focus on the fundamentals by drawing connections between methods and discussing general concepts such as loss functions, maximum likelihood, the bias-variance decomposition, ensemble averaging, kernels and the Bayesian approach along with generally useful tools such as regularization, cross validation, evaluation metrics and optimization methods. The final chapters offer practical advice for solving real-world supervised machine learning problems and on ethical aspects of modern machine learning.
This volume provides an illuminating exploration of the development of early African American literature from an African diasporic perspective—in Africa, England, and the Americas. It juxtaposes analyses of writings by familiar authors like Phillis Wheatley and Olaudah Equiano with those of lesser known or examined works by writers such as David Margrett and Isabel de Olvera to explore how issues including forced migration, enslavement, authorship, and racial identity influenced early Black literary production and how theoretical frameworks like Afrofuturism and intersectionality can enrich our understanding of texts produced in this period. Chapters grouped in four sections – Limits and Liberties of Early Black Print Culture, Black Writing and Revolution, Early African American Life in Literature, and Evolutions of Early Black Literature – examine how transitions coupled with conceptions of race, the impacts of revolution, and the effects of religion shaped the trajectory of authors' lives and the production of their literature.
Family was a central feature of social life in Italian cities. In the Renaissance, jurists, humanists, and moralists began to theorize on the relations between people and property that formed the 'substance' of the family and what held it together over the years. Family property was a bundle of shared rights. This was most evident when brothers shared a household and enterprise, but it also faced overlapping claims from children and wives which the paterfamilias had to recognize. Thomas Kuehn explores patrimony in legal thought, and how property was inherited, managed and shared in Renaissance Italy. Managing a patrimony was not a simple task. This led to a complex and active conceptualization of shared rights, and a conscious application of devices in the law that could override liabilities and preserve the group, or carve out distinct shares for each member. This wide-ranging volume charts the ever-present conflicts that arose and were a constant feature of family life.
This Element examines the concept of reflective practice in language teaching. It includes a brief description of what reflective practice is and how it is operationalized by two of its main protagonists, John Dewey and Donald Schön, as well as some of the limitations of their conceptions. This is used as an introduction to how the author further developed their conceptions when operationalizing reflective practice for language teachers through a five-stage framework for reflecting on practice for language teachers. The author then presents an in-depth case study of the reflections of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher working in Costa Rica as he moved through the five stages of the framework for reflecting on practice. The author then goes on to outline and discuss how reflective practice may be moved forward and calls attention to the importance of emotions in the process of reflection for language teachers.
Like other belligerents in World War II, the United States planned to annihilate the enemy, civilians as well as soldiers. Especially in the Pacific theater but in Europe as well, Americans drew on the experience of their own horrible Civil War. Victory would be accomplished through the utter destruction of evil, often going beyond moral boundaries and evoking moral qualms. Americans would defend the soldiers fighting a supposedly “good war,” as commentators later called it, against murderous ideologies. But in decades of reflection afterward, the American way defied notions of goodness. Surely, there were no panaceas, noted author Paul Fussell, to win a war but through killing.1 The war was a necessary fight against genocide and aggression. Yet tens of millions needlessly perished, and the United States shared responsibility for this outcome.
The trans-jurisdictional discourse on criminal justice is often hampered by mutual misunderstandings. The translation of legal concepts from English into other languages and vice versa is subject to ambiguity and potential error: the same term may assume different meanings in different legal contexts. More importantly, legal systems may choose differing theoretical or policy approaches to resolving the same issues, which sometimes – but not always – lead to similar outcomes. This book is the second volume of a series in which eminent scholars from German-speaking and Anglo-American jurisdictions work together on comparative essays that explore foundational concepts of criminal law and procedure. Each topic is illuminated from German and Anglo-American perspectives, and differences and similarities are analysed.
Over the last decade, the Supreme Court of Pakistan has emerged as a powerful and overtly political institution. While the strong form of judicial review adopted by the Supreme Court has fostered the perception of a sudden and ahistorical judicialisation of politics, the judiciary's prominent role in adjudicating issues of governance and statecraft was long in the making. This book presents a deeply contextualised account of law in Pakistan and situates the judicial review jurisprudence of the superior courts in the context of historical developments in constitutional politics, evolution of state structures and broader social transformations. This book highlights that the bedrock of judicial review has remained in administrative law; it is through the consistent development of the 'Writ jurisdiction' and the judicial review of administrative action that Pakistan's superior courts have progressively carved an expansive institutional role and aggrandised themselves to the status of the regulator of the state.
Recent studies have shown that the low seismicity of northern Germany is characterized by fault activity caused by the decay of the Late Pleistocene (Weichselian) ice sheet. Several faults and fault systems show evidence of neotectonic activity, all of which are oriented parallel to the margin of the Pleistocene ice sheets. The timing of fault movements implies that the seismicity in northern Germany is likely induced by varying lithospheric stress conditions related to glacial isostatic adjustment, and the faults thus can be classified as glacially induced faults. For the Osning, Harz Boundary and Schaabe faults, this is supported by numerical simulation of glacial isostatic adjustment-related stress field changes. Glacial isostatic adjustment is also a likely driver for the historical and parts of the recent fault activity. Glacial isostatic adjustment is also described for the Alps, but it is difficult to clearly distinguish between reactivation of faults in the foreland of the Alps due to the Alpine collision and glacial isostatic adjustment.
Regions affected by glacial isostatic adjustment experience stress changes. The stress will be released either by slow aseismic movements along faults or by sudden stress release in form of earthquakes. Location and source mechanism of those earthquakes can play a major role in understanding past and ongoing geodynamic processes in a glacial isostatic adjustment-affected region. On the one hand, alignments of earthquake hypocentres may act as an indicator for active faults that might not be known from geology before. On the other hand, calculation and interpretation of earthquake focal mechanisms, represent a key to stress and stress changes. We present an overview of seismological methods and tools to retrieve fault geometry and motion.