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Most American police departments claim to practice community-oriented policing (COP). The stated goals are to build partnerships between the police and the community, maintain order and quality of life, and solve problems that contribute to crime and fear of crime. However, researchers have noted how most departments attempting to implement COP have fallen short in successfully adopting the recommended reforms. This paper argues that the institutional setting in which American public policing operates leads to this result. By contrast, the institutional features of private security make its operation more conducive to achieving the goals of COP. These institutional differences include whether economic calculation is possible, the domain that is policed, and which rules are enforced.
We present continuous estimates of snow and firn density, layer depth and accumulation from a multi-channel, multi-offset, ground-penetrating radar traverse. Our method uses the electromagnetic velocity, estimated from waveform travel-times measured at common-midpoints between sources and receivers. Previously, common-midpoint radar experiments on ice sheets have been limited to point observations. We completed radar velocity analysis in the upper ~2 m to estimate the surface and average snow density of the Greenland Ice Sheet. We parameterized the Herron and Langway (1980) firn density and age model using the radar-derived snow density, radar-derived surface mass balance (2015–2017) and reanalysis-derived temperature data. We applied structure-oriented filtering to the radar image along constant age horizons and increased the depth at which horizons could be reliably interpreted. We reconstructed the historical instantaneous surface mass balance, which we averaged into annual and multidecadal products along a 78 km traverse for the period 1984–2017. We found good agreement between our physically constrained parameterization and a firn core collected from the dry snow accumulation zone, and gained insights into the spatial correlation of surface snow density.
Leather has been produced by a variety of methods throughout human history, providing researchers unique insight into multiple facets of social and economic life in the past. Archaeologically recovered leather is often fragile and poorly preserved, leading to the use of various conservation and restoration efforts that may include the application of fats, oils, or waxes. Such additives introduce exogenous carbon to the leather, contaminating the specimen. These contaminants, in addition to those accumulated during interment, must be removed through chemical pretreatment prior to radiocarbon (14C) dating to ensure accurate dating. DirectAMS utilizes organic solvents, acid-base-acid (ABA) and gelatinization for all leather samples. Collagen yield from leather samples is variable due to the method of production and the quality of preservation. However, evaluating the acid-soluble collagen fraction, when available, provides the most accurate 14C dates for leather samples. In instances where gelatinization does not yield sufficient material, the resulting acid-insoluble fraction may be dated. Here we examine the effectiveness of the combined organic solvent and ABA pretreatment with gelatinization for leather samples, as well as the suitability of the acid-insoluble fraction for 14C dating.
This study is a secondary data analysis that examines the association between parent modelling of dietary intake and physical activity and the same child behaviours among different races/ethnicities using innovative, rigorous and objective measures.
Ecological momentary assessment surveys were sent to parents to assess whether their child had seen them exercise or consume food. Dietary recall data and accelerometry were used to determine dietary intake and physical activity behaviours of children.
Participants were randomly selected from primary care clinics, serving low-income and racially/ethnically diverse families in Minnesota, USA.
Participants were families with children aged 5–7 years old who lived with parents 50 % of the time and shared at least one meal together.
A 10 percentage point higher prevalence in parent modelling of fruit and vegetable intake was associated with 0·12 higher serving intake of those same foods in children. The prevalence of parent modelling of eating energy dense foods (10 % prevalence units) was associated with 0·09 higher serving intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Furthermore, accelerometry-measured parent sedentary hours was strongly correlated with child sedentary time (0·37 child sedentary hours per parent sedentary hours). An exploratory interaction analysis did not reveal any statistical evidence that these relationships depended on the child’s race/ethnic background.
Interventions that increase parent modelling of healthy eating and minimise modelling of energy dense foods may have favourable effects on child dietary quality. Additionally, future research is needed to clarify the associations of parent modelling of physical activity and children’s physical activity levels.
The central question of this Element is this: What does it mean to be transgender - in general and in specific ways? What does the designation mean for any individual and for the groups in which the individual exists? Biologically, what occurs? Psychologically, what transpires? The Element starts with the basics. The authors question some traditional assumptions, lay out some bio-medical information, and define their terms. They then move to the question of central concern, seen first in terms of the individual and then in terms of the group or society. They conclude with some implications, urging some new approaches to research and suggest some applications in the classroom and beyond.
The Productive Margins research programme was formed in the belief that the people and communities excluded from participating in the regulatory regimes that impact upon their daily lives have the expertise and experiential knowledge to be politically productive. The Productive Margins’ mission statement is that these regimes can be redesigned and harnessed for engagement, ensuring that communities at the margins are engaged in regulatory processes and practices. The challenge is therefore to experiment with new systems of engagement that enable creativity and increase agency. One of the selected themes that the research programme set out to explore was spaces of dissent. This chapter focuses on the work co-produced with Coexist, one of the programme's community partners, in response to this theme.
Coexist is a social enterprise set up to create a space where different communities and individuals can grow, share, collaborate and learn what it is to live in coexistence with each other. In 2008, Coexist acquired the lease of Hamilton House in central Bristol, creating a place where the cross-pollination of progressive ideas could emerge by offering low-cost rent to artists, well-being practitioners and social enterprises. Coexist combines elements of radical practice with a distinct mindfulness approach as a means of enabling new forms of social relations within the space. The more dynamic aspects of the organisation's practice are offset by the need to pay rent and fulfil its legal obligations. Therefore, Coexist performs the role of regulator, responsible for the safety of the users of the building and ensuring that the project is economically sustainable.
In the period covered by the research, Coexist discovered problems reconciling its core purpose and values – being open to all and providing space for the community – with the challenge of managing the unequal power relations that make this vision potentially unachievable. It found that its commitment to ‘solution-focused’ forms of engagement between its various groups meant that it was unable to adequately deal with dissent and conflict. There is a risk within projects with egalitarian ambitions that – in the desire to create a space for ‘everybody’ and ‘celebrate difference’ – projects neglect to address latent power relations that perpetuate exclusion and privilege.
Health outcome measurement is a growth industry. Thousands of behavioural assessment instruments, developed for neurological populations alone, are available for diagnosis, prediction and evaluation of interventions. The task of selecting the best instrument for the purpose at hand is thus a daunting one for the clinician and researcher. Fortunately, there are guides that make the task easier. This presidential address covers three interrelated themes that inform assessment in neurorehabilitation: First, it reviews current concepts and the status of behavioural assessment in neurorehabilitation. It then examines evidence-based clinical practice as applied to assessment of function, along with methods to benchmark the scientific quality of assessment instruments. Finally, the article considers the need to move beyond outcome measurement in the neurorehabilitation setting.
Fine fescues (Festuca spp.) are cool-season grasses used in low-maintenance turf areas. Mesotrione is a PRE and early-POST herbicide used during establishment of most cool-season turfgrasses, excluding fine fescues. Currently, efforts are being made to breed for increased tolerance to mesotrione in fine fescues to enhance weed control during establishment. This study was conducted to evaluate the association of foliar and root uptake of [14C]mesotrione with the tolerance of three lines each of Chewings fescue [Festuca rubra ssp. commutata Gaudin; syn. F. rubra ssp. fallax (Thuill.) Nyman], hard fescue [Festuca trachyphylla (Hack.) Hack.], and strong creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L. ssp. rubra) lines. From a rate-titration experiment, the hierarchical rank of species for mesotrione tolerance from highest to lowest was: hard > Chewings > strong creeping red fescue. The hierarchical rank of species for foliar uptake from highest to lowest was: Chewings > strong creeping red > hard fescue. Translocation of foliar-absorbed 14C was not associated with differential tolerance levels of the three species. Root absorption was comparable among species, but differences between lines were detected within the species. The most susceptible lines of Chewings and strong creeping red fescue exhibited greater root uptake than lines with greater tolerance. Hard fescue translocated the least amount of root-absorbed radioactivity to shoots, while Chewings and strong creeping red fescues were comparable.
Clinical practice offers the opportunity for the clinician to be a scientist-practitioner in the workplace. This, in turn, facilitates building practice-based evidence. But this can only occur if the effects of the interventions are objectively and systematically evaluated. To this end, single-case methodology is a valuable tool to implement an intervention in a scientifically rigorous manner and gather data on treatment effectiveness. It is possible to incorporate single-case methods into routine clinical practice by using a few simple strategies. This paper examines the ways in which single-case methodology departs from (a) routine clinical practice and (b) the familiar between-groups research design, such as the randomised controlled trial. It presents five practical strategies that will bridge the gap between routine clinical practice and single-case methodology. The Model for Assessing Treatment Effect is described as providing context for and a framework to self-evaluate the scientific rigour in clinical practice and benchmark service delivery.
Background: There is little empirical research into lay definitions of frailty. Objectives: (1) To explore the definitions of frailty among older men, and (2) to explore if these definitions match commonly used clinical definitions of frailty. Methods: Analysis of open-ended questions to survey data from a prospective cohort study of older airmen. The definitions of frailty were elicited, and grouped according to themes. Results: 147 men responded (mean age: 93). There was considerable heterogeneity in older men’s’ definitions of frailty, and no theme of frailty was predominant. The most common theme was impairment in activities of daily living. Older men’s’ definition of frailty was not consistent with any commonly used medical theory of frailty. Conclusions: Most older men think frailty is important, but their definitions are not consistent. Frailty may be a heterogeneous experience, which different people experience differently.
To categorize the home food environment and dietary intake of young children (5–7 years old) from racially/ethnically diverse households using objectively collected data.
In-home observations in Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA.
Families with 5–7-year-old children who identified as Black, White, Hmong, Latino, Native American or Somali.
There were many significant differences by race/ethnicity for child dietary intake and for the home food environment, with specific patterns emerging by race/ethnicity. For example, Somali children had high Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores, but low daily intakes of fruits and vegetables. Black children had low HEI-2010 scores and a pattern of low intake of healthful foods and high intake of unhealthful foods. White and Latino families had high levels of both healthful and unhealthful home food availability and children with high HEI-2010 scores.
Results indicate that the home food environment of young children varies across racial/ethnic group. Study findings also provide new information regarding the home food environment of young children in previously understudied racial/ethnic groups and indicate that interventions working to improve the home food environment and dietary intake of children may want to consider race/ethnicity.
Introduction: Existing resources to support adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) in transition from school to the ‘adult world’ are variable. This study evaluated an intervention using a coaching approach to support adolescents during this transition phase.
Method: The study design was a parallel-group randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants (n = 43) aged 14–19 years were randomised to intervention (n = 21) or no-intervention control (n = 21) conditions. The intervention group received six coaching sessions over an average of 22 weeks. Outcome measures evaluated changes reported by the adolescent (satisfaction, emotional functioning and hope) and their parent (participation, behaviour and support needs).
Results: Relative to baseline, there was no significant improvement for those in the intervention group in comparison to the control group on any of the outcome measures.
Conclusion: The results of this RCT do not support coaching as an intervention for adolescents with ABI.