To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Elasmobranchs in the Gulf of California have been found with malformations, probably originated during embryonic development or caused by environmental anomalies and pollution associated with intense mining activity in the region. Clasper malformations are reported for the first time in two specimens of Pseudobatos buthi, a species recently described from the Gulf of California. The function of the claspers was not affected by the size difference, because specimens presented the distinctive characteristics of an adult individual. The reproductive system did not show any malformation, with symmetrical testes. Histological analysis of the testes revealed a normal spermatogenic development. To elucidate the causes and to detect a possible effect of the morphological malformations due to high levels of heavy metals, trace concentration values (cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, silver, lead and zinc) were determined in muscle and liver. Cadmium and lead concentrations in the muscle of the two specimens were below the permissible limit for human consumption (<0.05 mg kg−1); however, iron and zinc presented high values (0.455, 4.024 mg kg−1 in muscle and 21.931, 3.694 mg kg−1 in liver respectively). Mining activity and heavy metal pollution in the sampling area may have caused the malformations, which might be attributed to the high values of iron and zinc discovered in the muscle and liver.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This presentation highlights an integrated curriculum in CTR and a scientific entrepreneurship approach to entice and support students and faculty in HP programs into CTR and SE thus expanding the pool of new minority CTR researchers. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To present the TVMSC as a hub for trainings, mentoring programs, courses, entrepreneurship and support activities for health professionals(HP) and HP students :graduate (GS) and UgS and UgF. Responding to the need for CTR minority researchers, in a virtual setting due to COVID-19 crisis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: TVMSC will offer an educational program based in the Center for Research,Entrepreneurship and Scientific Collaboration (CRESCO) with on line courses and workshops in CTR and SE, for HP and students and a continued education curriculum for HP and clinician scientists toward a certification in CTR. Two hands-on experiences: a) a Pilot project program(PiP) with teams composed of an F, that previously completed training cycles and a research experience from a previous project in CTR as PI, with a research mentor and students or an established researcher as a PI with UgS and UgF, and b) participation in a SE team which will engage in training and submission of an SE project proposal. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: By the end of the five-year period the project will have had 200 UgS, 200 GS and 200 F that received online assistance in CTR skills, statistics and SE; 48 UgS and 48 GS with the skills in SEFL. In curricular development the project expects to have 6 online tutorials created, one FLSE online course and 18 modules in CTR content areas available for continued education of HP. Certifications in CTR will be completed by 160F/HPs. The expected participation in CTR on-hands experiences is 32 F, 64 students and 32 established researchers. PiP teams will publish at least 8 scientific papers and SEFL teams will submit at least 5 SE project proposals and 100% increase in CRESCO web based resources DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: This Project and its expected results will provide students and faculty members island-wide with the knowledge, skills and experiences in CTR with IE approach to foster the expansion of a cadre of Hispanic minority CTR researchers in direct benefit of the health of the people of Puerto Rico.
It is unknown if time-restricted feeding confers a protective effect on the physical function of older adults. The aim of this study was to assess prolonged nightly fasting in association with performance-based lower-extremity function (LEF) in a large population of community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1226 individuals ≥64 years from the Seniors-ENRICA-II (Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain) cohort. Habitual diet was assessed through a validated diet history. Fasting time was classified into the following categories: ≤9, 10–11 and ≥12 h/d (prolonged nightly fasting). Performance-based LEF was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). After adjusting for potential confounders, a longer fasting period was associated with a higher likelihood of impaired LEF (OR for the second and third categories v. ≤ 9 h/d fasting: 2·27 (95 % CI 1·56, 3·33) and 2·70 (95 % CI 1·80, 4·04), respectively; Ptrend < 0·001). Fasting time showed a significant association with the SPPB subtests balance impairment (OR for highest v. shortest fasting time: 2.48; 95 % CI 1·51, 4·08; Ptrend = 0·001) and difficulty to rise from a chair (OR 1·47; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·06; Ptrend = 0·01). The risk associated with ≥12 h fasting among those with the lowest levels of physical activity was three times higher than among those with ≤9 h fasting with the same low level of physical activity. Prolonged nightly fasting was associated with a higher likelihood of impaired LEF, balance impairment, and difficulty to rise from a chair in older adults, especially among those with low levels of physical activity.
We evaluated the effects of fermentation time and acid casein content on the microbial rennet obtained by solid-state fermentation using wheat bran as the carbon source. The experiments used two fermentation times (72 and 96 h), while acid casein content was 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g. Rennet strength from eight enzymatic extracts was measured using pasteurized whole milk. Rennet strength of samples from 72 h of fermentation showed an increase when acid casein content increased. The rennet strength increased at 96 h of fermentation with increasing amount of casein (up to 2.5 g), and then decreased with the largest addition (3.0 g) of casein. Coagulation time for the sample with highest rennet strength was 420 s.
The world is currently changing due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the field of dentistry is no stranger to this. The care of patients in the dental office involves very strict biosafety protocols, and patients must be aware of the protection barriers implemented to allow satisfactory, safe dental care. The purpose of this study was to synthesize and analyze the management of the current biosafety standards for dental patients since the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic. A bibliographic search of the main sources of information including MEDLINE (by means of PubMed), Scopus, Science Direct, SCIELO, and Google Scholar was carried out. Articles published without language restriction, systematic reviews, literature reviews, and observational studies were included. We identified the biosafety measures that must be taken before, during, and after dental practice following the arrival of COVID-19. The main measures include telephone triage, temperature taking on arrival at the office, the organization of the waiting room, washing hands before entering the office, knowing the auxiliary radiographic exams of choice and what type of treatment can be performed, albeit with restrictions. In conclusion, dental patients must comply with all the biosafety measures established by international protection standards and implemented by dentists before, during, and after dental practice to reduce the possibility of COVID-19 infection.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To assess the impact of FLTCs on CTR on S and F from health professions and basic science academic programs island wide in Puerto Rico. Cycles supported by the Title V Cooperative Project at University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus (UPRMSC) and Universidad Central del Caribe (UCC)(Title V). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: After offering FLTCs in CTR to S and F from UPRMSC and UCC, Title V expanded it to S and F from other institutions island wide in PR. These FLTCs were offered the 2nd semester of 2018 and consisted of 20 hours of interdisciplinary sessions in: introduction to and definition of CTR; preparation of a CTR-presentation; how to interview/share a presentation of a CT researcher and to prepare a research question in CTR. To assess the knowledge of S and F in the above-mentioned skills and their continuation in the 2nd level of CTR training, surveys were administered: pre-test, at the beginning, post-test, sometime during the FLTCs, and satisfaction at the end of the FLTCs. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Fifty eight (58) S/F from UPRMSC, UCC and 7 other institutions participated. Forty two (42,72%) answered a pre-test and 31/42 (74%) completed the post-test. Results showed that S/F: who correctly defined CTR increased from 7% to 77 %; their ability to identify a CT researcher increased from 10% to 83%. Fifty five percent (55 %) (21/38) S/F that were certified in the FLTCs, answered the satisfaction survey. One hundred percent (100%) indicated that the materials offered contributed in the identification of a CT researcher and a topic in CTR; 100% answered that the FLTCs contributed higher knowledge in and provided new skills in CTR. Moreover, 31/38 (82%) S/F started the 2nd level of training. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The FLTCs were successful in increasing S/F knowledge of CTR and to further engage in 2nd level of trainings. Title V impact extended island wide, increasing the diversity of represented health professions and science fields among participants. The interventions were deemed to be of high quality.
This article analyses female labour in Spanish mines during the golden age of the sector in Spain between 1860 and 1936. Although they were a small percentage of total employment, women accounted for a significant share of the workforce in certain Spanish districts. On the one hand, the study quantifies work performed directly by women, who were mostly engaged in preparation and concentration of the minerals, as well as the extent of female child labour. This has been done by using official statistics, analysing the share of women employed for each type of mineral extracted, the mining area where this activity took place, and other variables. In the article, the authors seek to identify possible causes of such a heterogeneous distribution of female labour in the mining industry in Spain. This situation was common in the sector throughout the world. On the other hand, the article analyses attitudes of institutions, unions, and the like that limited employment opportunities for women in mining (banning them from performing underground tasks and other activities) and even proposed excluding them altogether, responding to workers’ demands in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. We examine the objectives pursued by these institutions, which in some cases related to protection (physical and moral) of female workers but overall aimed mainly to preserve the social role of women (particularly reproduction) and exclude them from the workforce. The pressure on female workers was the most pronounced in the workplace. These factors gave rise to a global setback in female employment, especially among the youngest workers. Given this situation, the quantitative data used, together with information drawn from different sources, reveal that women resisted giving up these jobs, particularly in the districts with a larger share of female workers.
The Altamira Yellowthroat Geothlypis flavovelata is endemic to north-eastern Mexico, with a restricted distribution due to the spatial arrangement of its major habitat: wetlands. Given the lack of information regarding this vulnerable and endemic landbird, here we describe and analyse the sites where we recorded it in Northern Veracruz, as well as its population density, and natural history information. Our results show that the average density of this endemic yellowthroat is 1.006 ind/ha, with more individuals recorded in Tecolutla when compared to Tuxpan. We found a strong association between the Altamira Yellowthroat and southern cat-tail Typha domingensis, although we found scenarios under which the presence of the cat-tail was not a determinant of Altamira Yellowthroat presence. In light of the strong anthropogenic pressures on wetlands in the region, the Altamira Yellowthroat has become highly vulnerable. Thus, if we aim to preserve this endemic species, together with other wetland-dependent species, it is crucial to moderate –and even stop– human pressures on these ecosystems and mitigate past damages.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
This is the first report on the development and characterization of eight monoclonal antibodies (MABs) generated against whole- and membrane-enriched tachyzoite extracts of the apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy was used to localize respective epitopes in B. besnoiti tachyzoites along the lytic cycle. A pattern compatible with dense granule staining was observed with MABs 2.A.12, 2.F.3 and 2.G.4, which could be confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy for MABs 2.A.12 and 2.F.3. In particular, MABs 2.F.3 and 2.G.4 were secreted during early invasion, proliferation and egress phases. MABs 3.10.8 and 5.5.11 labelled the tachyzoite surface, whilst MABs 1.17.8, 8.9.2 and 2.G.A recognized the apical tip, which is reminiscent for microneme localization. Besides, the epitopes recognized by the latter two (MABs 8.9.2 and 2.G.A) exhibited a redistribution from the anterior part across the parasite surface towards the posterior end during invasion. Most MABs developed were genus-specific. Indeed, the MABs cross-reacted neither with T. gondii nor with N. caninum tachyzoites. In summary, we have generated MABs that will be useful to study the key processes in the lytic cycle of the parasite and with additional promising diagnostic value. However, the molecular identity of the antigens recognized remains to be elucidated.
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the safety and feasibility of using the new Cardia Ultrasept II™ device with interposed Goretex patch referring to the perforation of polyvinyl alcohol membrane.
Great advances have been made in the development of devices for closure of atrial septal defect. The Cardia Ultrasept II™ with interposed Goretex patch is the modified last generation of Cardia devices, having the advantage of a super-low profile within the atria and an integral locking delivery-retrieval mechanism that ensures safe deployment. In addition, with the interposition of the Goretex, it has been possible to abolish perforation of Ivalon’s membrane as a complication.
Methods and results
Patients with ostium secundum atrial septal defect with surrounding rims with a minimum length of 5 mm and who underwent atrial septal defect closure with the new Ultrasept II™ with Goretex patch were included from two paediatric cardiac centres. Primary end point was to determine perforation of the Goretex membrane at follow-up; secondary end point included right ventricular diastolic diameter. In total, 30 patients underwent atrial septal defect closure at a median age of 6 (1–29) years. At follow-up for 6 (range, 1–15) months, freedom from perforations was 100%. A continuous decrease in right ventricular diastolic diameter was found with an initial median of 30 (25–49) mm and after catheterisation of 27.5 (18–33) mm, p=0.01, and Z-score of 2.6 (1.7–3.6) versus 1.9 (1–2.9) after procedure, p=0.01.
The new modified generation of the Ultrasept II™ device with interposed Goretex patch is a good alternative to achieve atrial septal defect closure safely and feasibly with no membrane perforation at follow-up.
The aim of this study was to identify good practice principles for health technology assessment (HTA) that are the most relevant and of highest priority for application in Latin America and to identify potential barriers to their implementation in the region.
HTA good practice principles proposed at the international level were identified and then explored during a deliberative process in a forum of assessors, funders, and product manufacturers.
Forty-two representatives from ten Latin American countries participated. Good practice principles proposed at the international level were considered valid and potentially relevant to Latin America. Five principles were identified as priority and with the greatest potential to be strengthened at this time: transparency in the production of HTA, involvement of relevant stakeholders in the HTA process, mechanisms to appeal decisions, clear priority-setting processes in HTA, and a clear link between HTA and decision making. The main challenge identified was to find a balance between the application of these principles and the available resources in a way that would not detract from the production of reports and adaptation to the needs of decision makers.
The main recommendation was to progress gradually in strengthening HTA and its link to decision making by developing appropriate processes for each country, without trying to impose, in the short-term, standards taken from examples at the international level without adequate adaptation of these to local contexts.
To determine whether demographic characteristics or balance examination findings can predict the adherence of older people with instability to a vestibular rehabilitation programme.
A prospective case–control study was conducted of 120 patients aged 65 years or more (mean age, 77.3 ± 6.33 years). Two groups were classified according to patients’ adherence with the follow-up post-rehabilitation protocol. Analysed variables included: age, sex, body mass index, Timed Up and Go test findings, computerised dynamic posturography, Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores and Short Falls Efficacy Scale – International questionnaire results, number of falls, and type of vestibular rehabilitation.
Two groups were established: adherents (99 individuals) and non-adherents (21 individuals). There were differences between the groups regarding: sex (female-to-male ratio of 4.8:1 in adherents and 1.63:1 in non-adherents), age (higher in non-adherents) and voluntary movement posturographic test results (non-adherents had poorer scores).
The patients most likely to abandon a vestibular rehabilitation programme are very elderly males with low scores for centre of gravity balancing and limits of stability.
Emotional states, attitudes and intentions are often conveyed by modulations in the tone of voice. Impaired recognition of emotions from a tone of voice (receptive prosody) has been described as characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the ability to express non-verbal information in speech (expressive prosody) has been understudied. This paper describes a useful technique for quantifying the degree of expressive prosody deficits in schizophrenia, using a semi-automatic method, and evaluates this method’s ability to discriminate between patient and control groups. Forty-five medicated patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were matched with thirty-five healthy comparison subjects. Production of expressive prosodic speech was analyzed using variation in fundamental frequency (F0) measures on an emotionally neutral reading task. Results revealed that patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly more pauses (p < .001), were slower (p < .001), and showed less pitch variability in speech (p < .05) and fewer variations in syllable timing (p < .001) than control subjects. These features have been associated with «flat» speech prosody. Signal processing algorithms applied to speech were shown to be capable of discriminating between patients and controls with an accuracy of 93.8%. These speech parameters may have a diagnostic and prognosis value and therefore could be used as a dependent measure in clinical trials.
Salamanca lies on the right bank of the river Tormes, a tributary of the Douro, on the northern sub-plateau of the Iberian peninsula (fig. 1). Although hardly mentioned in Roman historical sources, it is a reference point for work on Roman territory because the surveyor Frontinus (De Agrorum Qualitate [ed. Thulin 1971] 1–2) used Salmantica (in Lusitania) and Palantia (in Citerior) to exemplify ager per extremitatem mensura comprehensus, the system of land organization characteristic of stipendiary cities. Frontinus was writing in Flavian times, but the creation of ager mensura comprehensus in Lusitania occurred in the Augustan period, as is confirmed by remarkable epigraphic documentation. In N Lusitania, a total of 11 boundary-stones (termini Augustales) are known, nine from the reign of Augustus (and two of these provide explicit reference to Salmantica) and two from that of Claudius. The dates provided by Augustus’ tribunicia potestas allow us to date the surveying operations delimiting the urban territories to between A.D. 4–5 (the inscriptions from Peroviseu and Ul) and A.D. 5–6 (the inscriptions from Sao Salvador, Ledesma, Ciudad Rodrigo, and the new one from Jarandilla de la Vera). The Augustan ager mensura comprehensus may have conditioned the model of the subsequent rural settlement by creating a framework for territorial occupation being organized around the villa from the Flavian period on. The villa would dominate the rural countryside, until it disappeared around the first decades of the 5th c. as part of a process that can be associated with the breaking down of imperial authority and the arrival of the Germanic peoples in the year 409. Almost nothing is known about Salamanca’s territory during the Islamic occupation until the first official repopulation took place under the king of Leon, Ramiro II, in 939–49. The lack of attested settlements in the Douro valley between the 8th and 10th c. is a key question for the organization of the border area between the Islamic state of Al-Andalus and the kingdom of Leon, but scholars generally reject the thesis formulated in 1966 by C. Sánchez Albornoz, which tended to present the lands of the Douro valley as practically depopulated.
The sea surface temperature (SST) variability of the Bay of Biscay and adjacent regions (1854–2010) has been examined in relation to the evolution of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), a major climate mode. The AMO index explains ~25% of the interannual variability of the annual SST during the last 150 years, while different indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) explain ≤1% of the long-term record. NAO is a high frequency climate mode while AMO can modulate low frequency changes. Sixty per cent of the AMO variability is contained in periods longer than a decade. The basin-scale influence of NAO on SST over specific years (1995 to 1998) is presented and the SST anomalies explained. The period analysed represents an abrupt change in NAO and the North Atlantic circulation state as shown with altimetry and SST data. Additional atmospheric climate data over a shorter ~60 year period (1950–2008) show the influence on the Bay of Biscay SST of the East Atlantic (EA) pattern and the Scandinavia (SCA) pattern. These atmospheric teleconnections explain respectively ~25% and ~20% of the SST variability. The winter SST in the shelf-break/slope or poleward current region is analysed in relation to AMO. The poleward current shows a trend towards increasing SSTs during the last three decades as a result of the combined positive phase of AMO and global warming. The seasonality of this winter warm flow in the Iberian region is related to the autumn/winter seasonality of south-westerly (SW) winds. The SW winds are strengthened along the European shelf-break by the development of low pressure conditions in the region to the north of the Azores and therefore a negative NAO. AMO overall modulates multidecadal changes (~60% of the AMO variance). The long-term time-series of SST and SST anomalies in the Bay of Biscay show AMO-like cycles with maxima near 1870 and 1950 and minima near 1900 and 1980 indicating a period of 60–80 years during the last century and a half. Similar AMO-like variability is found in the Russell cycle of the Western English Channel (1924–1972). AMO relates at least to four mesozooplankton components of the Russell cycle: the abundance of the chaetognaths Parasagitta elegans and Parasagitta setosa (AMO −), the amount of the species Calanus helgolandicus (AMO −), the amount of the larvae of decapod crustaceans (AMO −) and the number of pilchard eggs (Sardine pilchardus; AMO +). In addition to AMO, the decadal to multidecadal (D2M) variability in the number of sunspots is analysed for the last 300 years. Several periodicities and a multi-secular linear increase are presented. There are secular minima near 1710, 1810, 1910 and 2010. The long term variability (>11 years) of the solar sunspot activity explains ~50% of the variance of the SST of the Bay of Biscay with periods longer than 11 years. AMO is finally compared with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the leading principal component of North Pacific SST anomalies.
We analysed variations in swordfish capture and total by-catches, under different oceanographic and technical conditions, in the artisanal longline fishery operating in the Alboran Sea during the summer period. The oceanographic variable Sea Surface Velocity absolute component (SSV; m s−1) was the variable with the greatest explanatory power, as it was present in all models.