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The Cambridge Edition of the Complete Fiction of Henry James provides, for the first time, a scholarly edition of a major writer whose work continues to be read, quoted, adapted and studied. The nine tales in this volume, published between 1884 and 1888, include 'The Aspern Papers', set in Venice and featuring a devious scholar attempting to steal the letters of an American poet from his former lover, and 'The Liar,' on the world of painters and their models. These tales exemplify James's continuing interest in the art of short fiction during a period which saw him responding to the stimulations of French naturalism and successfully reworking the international theme that had made him famous at the end of the 1870s. Extensive explanatory notes enable modern readers to understand the tales' historical, cultural and literary references.
This introduction to the theory of rigid structures explains how to analyze the performance of built and natural structures under loads, paying special attention to the role of geometry. The book unifies the engineering and mathematical literatures by exploring different notions of rigidity - local, global, and universal - and how they are interrelated. Important results are stated formally, but also clarified with a wide range of revealing examples. An important generalization is to tensegrities, where fixed distances are replaced with 'cables' not allowed to increase in length and 'struts' not allowed to decrease in length. A special feature is the analysis of symmetric tensegrities, where the symmetry of the structure is used to simplify matters and allows the theory of group representations to be applied. Written for researchers and graduate students in structural engineering and mathematics, this work is also of interest to computer scientists and physicists.
Celsus penned the earliest known detailed attack upon Christianity. While his identity is disputed and his anti-Christian treatise, entitled the True Word, has been exclusively transmitted through the hands of the great Christian scholar Origen, he remains an intriguing figure. In this interdisciplinary volume, which brings together ancient philosophers, specialists in Greek literature, and historians of early Christianity and of ancient Judaism, Celsus is situated within the cultural, philosophical, religious and political world from which he emerged. While his work is ostensibly an attack upon Christianity, it is also the defence of a world in which Celsus passionately believed. It is the unique contribution of this volume to give voice to the many dimensions of that world in a way that will engage a variety of scholars interested in late antiquity and the histories of Christianity, Judaism and Greek thought.
Why was the UK so unprepared for the pandemic, suffering one of the highest death rates and worst economic contractions of the major world economies in 2020? Hilary Cooper and Simon Szreter reveal the deep roots of our vulnerability and set out a powerful manifesto for change post-Covid-19. They argue that our commitment to a flawed neoliberal model and the associated disinvestment in our social fabric left the UK dangerously exposed and unable to mount an effective response. This is not at all what made Britain great. The long history of the highly innovative universal welfare system established by Elizabeth I facilitated both the industrial revolution and, when revived after 1945, the postwar Golden Age of rising prosperity. Only by learning from that past can we create the fairer, nurturing and empowering society necessary to tackle the global challenges that lie ahead - climate change, biodiversity collapse and global inequality.
Should we regulate artificial intelligence? Can we? From self-driving cars and high-speed trading to algorithmic decision-making, the way we live, work, and play is increasingly dependent on AI systems that operate with diminishing human intervention. These fast, autonomous, and opaque machines offer great benefits – and pose significant risks. This book examines how our laws are dealing with AI, as well as what additional rules and institutions are needed – including the role that AI might play in regulating itself. Drawing on diverse technologies and examples from around the world, the book offers lessons on how to manage risk, draw red lines, and preserve the legitimacy of public authority. Though the prospect of AI pushing beyond the limits of the law may seem remote, these measures are useful now – and will be essential if it ever does.
In this study, we explore small-scale (~1 to 20 km) thermal-refractive effects on basal geothermal heat flux (BGHF) at subglacial boundaries resulting from lateral thermal conductivity contrasts associated with subglacial topography and geologic contacts. We construct a series of two-dimensional, conductive, steady-state models that exclude many of the complexities of ice sheets in order to demonstrate the effect of thermal refraction. We show that heat can preferentially flow into or around a subglacial valley depending on the thermal conductivity contrast with underlying bedrock, with anomalies of local BGHF at the ice–bedrock interface between 80 and 120% of regional BGHF and temperature anomalies on the order of ±15% for the typical range of bedrock conductivities. In the absence of bed topography, subglacial contacts can produce significant heat flux and temperature anomalies that are locally extensive (>10 km). Thermal refraction can result in either an increase or decrease in the likelihood of melting and ice-sheet stability depending on the conductivity contrast and bed topography. While our models exclude many of the physical complexities of ice behavior, they illustrate the need to include refractive effects created by realistic geology into future glacial models to improve the prediction of subglacial melting and ice viscosity.
The field of grand strategy is exceptionally American-centric theoretically, methodologically and empirically. Indeed, many scholars treat the United States as a unique case, and thus incomparable. This Element addresses the shortcomings of this approach by developing a novel framework for the purpose of systematic comparison, both within and among different countries. Using the United States as a benchmark, three dimensions are considered in which grand strategy can be compared: first, attributes of the major types commonly discussed in the literature; second, similarities and differences in the implementation of grand strategies over time, using US strategic relations with contemporary Russia as an example; and finally, across space, properties of the grand strategies that are interactively employed by other major powers in relation to the United States in the Indo-Pacific. The Element can be used by scholars and students alike to expand analysis beyond the confines that currently dominate the field.
During COVID-19, health provision and information resources have been increasingly provided via digital means (e.g. websites, apps) and this will become a standard practice beyond the pandemic. People with severe mental illness face profound health inequalities (e.g. a >20-year mortality gap). Digital exclusion puts this population at risk of heightened or compounded inequalities. This has been referred to as the ‘digital divide’. For any new digital means introduced in clinical practice to augment healthcare service provision, issues of accessibility, acceptability and usability should be addressed by researchers and developers early in the design phase, and prior to full implementation, to prevent digital exclusion.
Smoking rates are higher for people who use mental health services, which contributes substantially to health inequalities. Smoking can lead to worse COVID-19 outcomes, yet it remains unclear whether smoking has changed for people who use mental health services. We examined smoking patterns in a large clinical cohort of people with severe mental illness, before and during the pandemic. We found high levels of nicotine dependence and heavier patterns of smoking. Although some people had reported quitting, it is likely that smoking inequalities have become further entrenched. Mental health services should seek to mitigate this modifiable risk and source of poor health.
A review of Australian mental health services identified a gap in routine outcome measures addressing social, emotional and behavioural domains for pre-schoolers and infants. The Child and Adolescent Mental Health Information Development Expert Advisory Panel Working Group developed the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Infants (HoNOSI), a clinician-reported routine outcome measure for use with those aged under 4 years. Prior psychometric testing showed that the HoNOSI was considered to show face validity, and that it met the standards for concurrent validity and internal consistency.
We aimed to investigate the interrater reliability of the HoNOSI.
Forty-five infant mental health clinicians completed HoNOSI ratings on a set of five case vignettes.
Quadratic weighted kappa interrater reliability estimates showed the HoNOSI to have Almost Perfect interrater reliability for the HoNOSI total score. Of the 15 scales, one had Moderate, seven had Substantial and seven had Almost Perfect interrater reliability. Ten of the fifteen scales and the total score exceeded the COnsensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement INstruments criteria for interrater reliability (κw ≥ 0.7).
There has been a clear need for a routine outcome measure for use with infants and pre-schoolers. This study provides evidence of interrater reliability. The current findings, combined with the face and concurrent validity studies, support further examination of HoNOSI in real-world settings.
The US complaint about Chinese tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) on certain grain products helps illustrate several key issues in US–China trade relations and the effectiveness of WTO disputes. First, do international obligations based on transparency and fairness work in relation to an authoritarian country not known for the rule of law domestically? Second, can there be a disconnect between the legal aspects of a dispute and the underlying economic interests, with a DSB ruling sometimes not leading to improved trade flows? And third, given the bilateral trade war and ‘phase one’ trade deal between the United States and China, has the WTO been superseded in this trade relationship? This paper summarizes the facts and law of the China–TRQs dispute, and examines each of these questions in that context.
Cross-sectional studies indicate that hippocampal function is abnormal across stages of psychosis. Neural theories of psychosis pathophysiology suggest that dysfunction worsens with illness stage. Here, we test the hypothesis that hippocampal function is impaired in the early stage of psychosis and declines further over the next 2 years.
We measured hippocampal function over 2 years using a scene processing task in 147 participants (76 individuals in the early stage of a non-affective psychotic disorder and 71 demographically similar healthy control individuals). Two-year follow-up was completed in 97 individuals (50 early psychosis, 47 healthy control). Voxelwise longitudinal analysis of activation in response to scenes was carried out within a hippocampal region of interest to test for group differences at baseline and a group by time interaction.
At baseline, we observed lower anterior hippocampal activation in the early psychosis group relative to the healthy control group. Contrary to our hypothesis, hippocampal activation remained consistent and did not show the predicted decline over 2 years in the early psychosis group. Healthy controls showed a modest reduction in hippocampal activation after 2 years.
The results of this study suggest that hippocampal dysfunction in early psychosis does not worsen over 2 years and highlight the need for longer-term longitudinal studies.
Dependency functions as a keyword in care theory. However, care theorists have spelled out the ontological and moral ramifications of dependency in different and often conflicting ways. In this article, I argue that conceptual disputes about dependency betray a fundamental discordance among authors, rooted in the empirical premises of their arguments. Hence, although authors appear to share a vocabulary of dependency, they are not writing about quite the same phenomenon. I seek to elucidate these differences by teasing out and comparing different conceptions of dependency found in the literature. Borrowing a phrase from Eva Kittay, I trace four “paradigm cases” of dependency: the infant, the physically disabled person, the profoundly intellectually disabled person, and the refugee. These paradigm cases serve as the empirical touchstone from which theorists extract their conceptions of dependency. Each paradigm case, moreover, permits (or even implores) a particular ethical sensibility toward care. How we understand and value dependency thus seems to determine how we understand and value care, and vice versa. In this way, I contend, our normative orientation toward care might influence what sorts of dependency we see—and, by extension, which forms of dependency we fail to notice.
A new international instrument is needed to address access to interoperability standards and standards-essential intellectual property, which are critical to maintaining technological advancement and promoting cost-effective solutions for consumers. Applying law and economics methodologies, Simon Brinsmead systematically explores how international and domestic law deals with these matters. This important book includes an examination of the technical and economic nature of interoperability standards; a detailed analysis of the issues arising under intellectual property and competition law; an analysis of whether liability or exclusive property rules should apply with respect to interoperability standards and SEIP; and consideration of feasible international approaches. Finally, Brinsmead includes a draft of his proposed international soft law instrument as a starting point for future discussions in the field. Of interest to lawyers, regulators and scholars, this work offers a meaningful contribution to international governance, harmonization of laws and technological advancement.
Linoleic acid (LA), an essential n-6 fatty acid (FA), is critical for fetal development. We investigated the effects of maternal high LA (HLA) diet on offspring cardiac development and its relationship to circulating FA and cardiovascular function in adolescent offspring, and the ability of the postnatal diet to reverse any adverse effects. Female Wistar Kyoto rats were fed low LA (LLA; 1·44 % energy from LA) or high LA (HLA; 6·21 % energy from LA) diets for 10 weeks before pregnancy and during gestation/lactation. Offspring, weaned at postnatal day 25, were fed LLA or HLA diets and euthanised at postnatal day 40 (n 6–8). Maternal HLA diet decreased circulating total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in females and decreased total plasma n-3 FA in males, while maternal and postnatal HLA diets decreased total plasma n-3 FA in females. α-Linolenic acid (ALA) and EPA were decreased by postnatal but not maternal HLA diets in both sexes. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets increased total plasma n-6 and LA, and a maternal HLA diet increased circulating leptin, in both male and female offspring. Maternal HLA decreased slopes of systolic and diastolic pressure–volume relationship (PVR), and increased cardiac Col1a1, Col3a1, Atp2a1 and Notch1 in males. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets left-shifted the diastolic PVR in female offspring. Coronary reactivity was altered in females, with differential effects on flow repayment after occlusion. Thus, maternal HLA diets impact lipids, FA and cardiac function in offspring, with postnatal diet modifying FA and cardiac function in the female offspring.
To assess the incidence of colonization and infection with carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-Ab) in the ICUs of our city hospitals before and during COVID-19 pandemic.
Multicentre before-after cross sectional study to compare the rates of colonization and infection with CPE and/or CR-Ab in two study periods, period 1 (Jan-Apr 2019) and period 2 (Jan-Apr 2020). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% CI of weekly colonization and infection rates for each period were compared for the two study periods with Poisson regression. Weekly trends in the incidence of colonization or infection for each study period were summarized using local weighted (Loess) regression.
There was no significant change in either IRR and weekly trend in CPE colonization and infection during the two study periods. A shift from KPC to other CPE mechanisms (OXA-48 and VIM) was observed during period 2. Compared to period 1, during period 2 the IRR of colonization and infection with CR-Ab increased of 7.5 and 5.5-fold, respectively. Genome sequencing showed that all CR-Ab strains belonged to the CC92/IC2 clonal lineage. Clinical strains clustered closely into a single monophyletic group in one of the three centres, whereas segregated in two different clusters in the other two centres, strongly appoints for the occurrence of horizontal transmission.
Our findings remark the need of pursuing infection control activities targeted against the spread of antimicrobial resistance intra and inter hospitals during COVID-19 pandemic, and if necessary re-modulating them according to the new organizational structures imposed by the pandemic.
Two prominent risk factors for major depressive disorder (MDD) are childhood maltreatment (CM) and familial risk for MDD. Despite having these risk factors, there are individuals who maintain mental health, i.e. are resilient, whereas others develop MDD. It is unclear which brain morphological alterations are associated with this kind of resilience. Interaction analyses of risk and diagnosis status are needed that can account for complex adaptation processes, to identify neural correlates of resilience.
We analyzed brain structural data (3T magnetic resonance imaging) by means of voxel-based morphometry (CAT12 toolbox), using a 2 × 2 design, comparing four groups (N = 804) that differed in diagnosis (healthy v. MDD) and risk profiles (low-risk, i.e. absence of CM and familial risk v. high-risk, i.e. presence of both CM and familial risk). Using regions of interest (ROIs) from the literature, we conducted an interaction analysis of risk and diagnosis status.
Volume in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), part of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), was significantly higher in healthy high-risk individuals. There were no significant results for the bilateral superior frontal gyri, frontal poles, pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyri, and the right MFG.
The healthy high-risk group had significantly higher volumes in the left DLPFC compared to all other groups. The DLPFC is implicated in cognitive and emotional processes, and higher volume in this area might aid high-risk individuals in adaptive coping in order to maintain mental health. This increased volume might therefore constitute a neural correlate of resilience to MDD in high risk.