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Joseph Conrad: Contemporary Reviews (five volumes) is an indispensable resource for Conrad specialists and students of literary Modernism generally, aiming to provide as complete a view as possible of the contemporary reception of Joseph Conrad's works in the English-speaking world. These volumes offer insights into early twentieth-century reviewing practices, the marketing of literary fiction and the wide interest in such writing, as reviews of Conrad's work regularly appeared in provincial and colonial newspapers. Contemporary Reviews Volume 5 offers previously unavailable reviews spanning Conrad's career, from Almayer's Folly (1895) to Last Essays (1926). The nearly one thousand reviews collected here chart the consolidation of Conrad's reputation as a major English author, recording his impact upon late-Victorian literature and demonstrating how he helped shape literary Modernism. Articulating areas of critical interest that continue to attract readers and commentators today, the Contemporary Reviews confirm Conrad's growing stature in the colonial literary marketplace.
Supporting the mental health and well-being of children and young people is a top priority for parents, caregivers and teachers, but it can be tricky to find reliable and evidence-based information. Written by an experienced child and adolescent psychiatrist, in a user-friendly question and answer format, this book outlines the mental health challenges facing our children and young people and offers practical advice on how to best support them. The book covers a wide range of topics, including how biological factors and lifestyle factors affect mental health, parenting strategies, managing school, building networks of support, and connecting with children and young people. It gives a broad overview of the most common mental health difficulties and disorders, and considers how they can be managed. A must read for anyone looking to understand what a child or young person may be experiencing and why, and the practical ways in which to effectively support them.
A smooth body, adverse pressure gradient (APG), turbulent boundary layer (TBL) separation is experimentally studied. The geometry features canonical TBL development prior to encountering a smooth, two-dimensional convex ramp geometry of finite span onto which a streamwise APG that is fully adjustable is imposed. Both large- and small-scale separations are studied, and all data are archived on the NASA Turbulence Modeling Resource website. This paper describes the large-scale separation case with focus on the surface topography and topology of both separation and reattachment. Despite the spanwise uniform approach TBL and ramp geometry, the separation is highly three-dimensional but the reattachment is spanwise uniform. The surface flow topology is characterized by the ‘owl-face pattern of the fourth kind’ – found to be highly repeatable over multiple experiments. This ubiquitous topology has been reported for a variety of flows including inclined bodies of revolution. It is demonstrated that the APG and the secondary flow associated with the sidewall–ramp juncture is responsible for the formation of the surface separation patterns.
The duration of immunity after first severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the extent to which prior immunity prevents reinfection is uncertain and remains an important question within the context of new variants. This is a retrospective population-based matched observational study where we identified the first polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive of primary SARS-CoV-2 infection case tests between 1 March 2020 and 30 September 2020. Each case was matched by age, sex, upper tier local authority of residence and testing route to one individual testing negative in the same week (controls) by PCR. After a 90-day pre-follow-up period for cases and controls, any subsequent positive tests up to 31 December 2020 and deaths within 28 days of testing positive were identified, this encompassed an essentially vaccine-free period. We used a conditional logistic regression to analyse the results. There were 517 870 individuals in the matched cohort with 2815 reinfection cases and 12 098 first infections. The protective effect of a prior SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive episode was 78% (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 0.21–0.23). Protection rose to 82% (OR 0.18, 0.17–0.19) after a sensitivity analysis excluded 933 individuals with a first test between March and May and a subsequent positive test between June and September 2020. Amongst individuals testing positive by PCR during follow-up, reinfection cases had 77% lower odds of symptoms at the second episode (adjusted OR 0.23, 0.20–0.26) and 45% lower odds of dying in the 28 days after reinfection (adjusted OR 0.55, 0.42–0.71). Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection offered protection against reinfection in this population. There was some evidence that reinfections increased with the alpha variant compared to the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 variant highlighting the importance of continued monitoring as new variants emerge.
Researchers and public health professionals need to better understand individual engagement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mitigation behaviors to reduce the human and societal costs of the current pandemic and prepare for future respiratory pandemics. We suggest that developing measures of individual mitigation behaviors and testing them among high-risk individuals, including pregnant people, may help to reduce overall morbidity and mortality by quickly identifying targets for messaging around mitigation until sufficient vaccination uptake is reached.
We surveyed pregnant people in California over 2 waves of the COVID-19 pandemic to explore mitigation behaviors. We developed and validated a novel Viral Respiratory Illness Mitigation Scale (VRIMS).
Seven measures loaded onto a single factor with good psychometric properties. The overall sample scale average was high over both waves, indicating that most pregnant Californians engaged in most of the strategies most of the time. Older participants, minoritized participants, those living in more urban contexts, and those surveyed during a surge reported engaging in these strategies most frequently.
Clinicians and researchers should consider using reliable, validated measures like the VRIMS to identify individuals and communities that may benefit from additional education on reducing risk for COVID-19, future respiratory pandemics, or even seasonal flu.
The upper Bartonian–Priabonian shallow-marine deposits in the Biga Peninsula (NW Turkey) contain some hyaline larger benthic foraminifers (LBF) with a test architecture similar to ‘orbitoidiform’ foraminifers, but displaying some distinctive and complex morphological features that are recorded here for the first time. These coarsely porous specimens are characterized by a flat, disc-shaped, fragile, and smooth test with a layer of equatorial chambers/chamberlets, surrounded by poorly developed lateral chamberlets, never forming a discrete layer on either side of the equatorial layer. The nepionic stage is very distinctive because the bilocular embryonic apparatus is followed by a semi-rounded, notably large auxiliary chamber with a characteristic wavy outline, and consecutive cyclical chambers. The cyclical chamber arrangement is later transformed into annular cycles with numerous, complex arcuate- to cup-shaped chamberlets, as observed in equatorial sections. Bigaella orbitoidiformis Özcan, Mitchell, Pignatti, Simmons, and Yücel, n. gen. n. sp., is established for these specimens, and placed within the family Eoannulariidae Ferràndez-Cañadell and Serra-Kiel, emended herein. The new genus occurs together with Caudriella Haman and Huddleston and Epiannularia Caudri (both originally established from the American bioprovince) and the genus Linderina Schlumberger (found both in the Tethys and the American bioprovinces), together with other typical Western Tethyan LBFs. A comparison of the new genus with the aforementioned taxa is given.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has killed nearly 800,000 Americans since early 2020. The disease has disproportionately affected older Americans, men, persons of color, and those living in congregate living facilities. Sacramento County (California USA) has used a novel Mobile Integrated Health Unit (MIH) to test hundreds of patients who dwell in congregate living facilities, including skilled nursing facilities (SNF), residential care facilities (ie, assisted living facilities [ALF] and board and care facilities [BCF]), and inpatient psychiatric facilities (PSY), for SARS-CoV-2.
The MIH was authorized and rapidly created at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic as a joint venture between the Sacramento County Department of Public Health (SCDPH) and several fire-based Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies within the county to perform SARS-CoV-2 testing and surveillance in a prehospital setting at a number of congregate living facilities. All adult patients (≥18 years) who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by the MIH from March 31, 2020 through April 30, 2020 and lived in congregate living facilities were included in this retrospective descriptive cohort. Demographic and laboratory data were collected to describe the cohort of patients tested by the MIH.
During the study period, the MIH tested a total of 323 patients from 15 facilities in Sacramento County. The median age of patients tested was 66 years and the majority were female (72%). Overall, 72 patients (22%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in congregate living settings, a higher rate of positivity than was measured across the county during the same time period.
The MIH was a novel method of epidemic surveillance that succeeded in delivering effective and efficient testing to patients who reside in congregate living facilities and was able to accurately identify pockets of infection within otherwise low prevalence areas. Cooperative prehospital models are an effective model to deliver out-of-hospital testing and disease surveillance that may serve as a blueprint for community-based care delivery for a number of disease states and future epidemics or pandemics.
States must investigate possible violations of international humanitarian law in armed conflict, and many States use military procedures for all or part of the investigation process. Particular tensions can arise with regard to the perception of justice in the context of military judicial procedures, especially surrounding questions of independence and impartiality. This article lays out the international legal framework which should be used to solve these challenges, arguing that a State must address both the specificities of military institutions and the need for a perception of justice by the affected communities in considering the proper administration of justice in armed conflict.
Comparison is a key tool in the social sciences. Scholars make comparisons across time and place to better understand our social and political worlds. A central technique that scholars use is often called ‘controlled comparison.’ Controlled comparisons rely on scholars holding possible explanations for the outcome of interest (e.g., revolutions or political participation) constant across different cases. This approach has been central to some of the most influential works of social science. It has helped scholars explain everything from divergent development outcomes to difference in regime type. Yet controlled comparisons are not the only form of comparison that scholars utilize to answer important questions. There is little guidance, however, for how to design or execute these comparisons or why research that does not rely on controlled comparisons can offer important insights. The goal of this edited volume is to begin to develop some of these guidelines. To do so, this volume explores two of the most fundamental questions in the study of politics: (1) why do scholars compare what they compare and (2) how do the methodological assumptions scholars make about why and how they compare shape the knowledge they produce? By answering these questions, the volume creates new resources for future students and researchers to draw upon in their efforts to advance knowledge.
To what extent can an ethnographic sensibility enhance comparison? We argue that approaching comparison with an ethnographic sensibility – that is, being sensitive to how informants make sense of their worlds and incorporating meaning into our analyses – can strengthen comparative qualitative research. Adopting an ethnographic sensibility would enhance the quality of scholarly arguments by incorporating the processes through which actors ascribe meanings to their lived experiences and the political processes in which they are enmeshed. Because social science arguments often involve accounts of individual actors’ interests, ideas, or impressions, it is imperative to place such cognitive arguments in a broader cultural context. Adopting an ethnographic sensibility requires attention not only to that context but also to the political and social meanings which make that context intelligible. We elaborate these arguments through the lens of two comparative ethnographic works: a study of political mobilization in Bolivia and Mexico and a study of vigilantism in two South African townships.
In an interview with Lisa Wedeen, one of the contemporary comparative political scientists whose work most consistently speaks to both political science and interdisciplinary audiences, the editors ask Wedeen to reflect on the role that comparison has played in her work. Wedeen is the author of three groundbreaking monographs on seemingly single cases – two on Syria and one on Yemen. Yet, in the course of the interview, it becomes apparent how profoundly comparative Wedeen’s work is. She discusses her comparison of “exemplary events” in her field sites as a method through which to draw broad lessons about politics from apparent ephemera. She discusses the comparisons she makes between ethnographic insights and political theory to tack back and forth between empirical and theoretical material with the goal of developing new ways to think about politics. And she discusses the ways in which these comparative practices make her work not just an empirical practice but also a political practice – one that makes the work of a comparative political scientist not just a career but a vocation.