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We describe a collaborative training program aimed at improving access to and quality of integral abortion care, with a focus on the legally induced termination of pregnancy (ToP) program (ILE in Spanish) in Mexico City, after its decriminalization in 2007. Where legal framework is altogether or severely restricted, formal teaching and training for medical and nurse students is extremely poor, and access to recommended surgical and medical technologies is limited. On the contrary, where the law favors ample access to the procedure, updated, evidence-based guidelines and protocols usually ensue. In Mexico City, training health professionals immediately followed, and even preceded, legal changes, with in-service person-to-person trainings up to a mentoring and a Training of Trainers (ToT) modality, which presently assure that 100% of ILEs are done with recommended technologies. Training in abortion and related care, should ideally be integrated in pre-service curricula, to assure its sustainability and eliminate related stigma.
To analyze factors associated with a patient's probability of being a Heavy User (HU) of inpatient psychiatric services and to compare the HU inpatient population with Non-Heavy Users (NHUs).
Patients and methods
The survey was conducted among inpatients enrolled in the PROGRES-Acute-project, an Italian nationwide survey of public and private inpatient facilities. Patients with three or more admissions over the last 12 months were considered HUs, and patients who had undergone one or two admissions during the same period made up the NHU group.
Four hundred and thirty-five (40.5%) were HUs, and 640 (59.5%) NHUs. HUs were younger, more frequently unmarried, unemployed, receiving a disability-pension, and either homeless or living in a residential facility. HUs were more likely to have experienced conflicts with their partners or family members during the week prior to admission. A logistic regression analysis revealed that age, age at first admission, number of life-time admissions, and having been the victim of violence were the most important predictive factors for the HU phenomenon.
Our study suggests that specific attention should be given to patients’ family context, due to its crucial role in daily informal care and in the triggering of events leading to rehospitalization.
This study evaluated the effects of a diet containing yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.; TM) larva meal on quality parameters (pH24, color and drip losses), proximate composition and fatty acid (FA) profile of meat from free-range chickens. A total of 140 medium-growing hybrid female chickens were free-range reared and randomly allotted to two dietary treatments: a control group and a TM group, in which TM meal was included at 75 g kg−1 as fed in substitution of corn gluten meal. Each group consisted of five pens as replicates, with 14 chicks per pen. At 97 days of age, ten birds (two birds/pen) from each feeding group were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Quality parameters and proximate composition of breast and thigh meat were not affected by treatment. The effects of dietary TM larva meal on the FA profile of thigh meat were negligible. Breast meat from TM-fed chickens showed higher oleic and α-linolenic acid percentages as well as lower atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that TM inclusion in diets for free-range chickens did not prejudice meat quality traits. The obtained results confirm that TM can be considered a promising insect protein source for the poultry feed industry.
Finding insect meals as alternative sources of poultry feedstuffs is a recent research topic; therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., HI) larvae meal in broiler chicken diets on the carcass characteristics and meat quality parameters, proximate composition, fatty acid profile and the heavy metal content of the breast meat. Four dietary treatments were designed: a control diet (HI0) and three experimental diets (HI5, HI10 and HI15), corresponding to 50, 100 and 150 g/kg HI inclusion levels, respectively. The inclusion of 50, 100 and 150 g HI meal per kg feed supply 16.56%, 33.01% and 49.63% of required crude protein. The broilers were slaughtered at day 35, the carcasses were weighed and the breast muscles were excised from 16 birds per each feeding group (two birds per replicate pens) and used for meat quality evaluation. Linear and quadratic responses were observed, for increasing HI meal levels, in the live and carcass weights (maximum for HI10). As far as the colour of the breast meat is concerned, redness (a*) showed a linear response, while yellowness (b*) linearly decreased with increasing HI meal levels (minimum for HI15). As the HI larvae meal increased in the diets, the moisture content linearly decreased and the protein content increased. The total saturated fatty acid and total monounsaturated fatty acid proportions rose to the detriment of the polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction. The HI larvae meal, used in the current study, represents a valuable protein source for broiler chickens when included by up to 100 g/kg in their diets, as an improved slaughtering performance was observed without any detrimental effects on meat quality parameters or heavy metal residues in the meat.
Over the last decade, much of the key questions in Galactic Archaeology have been asnwered by studying the Milky Way’s globular cluster (GC) system. Following on this, it has been shown that a substantial fraction of the Milky Way’s stellar halo field arises from GC dissolution. In this work, we make use of the latest data release fromn the APOGEE survey to study GC dissolution ratios in different spatial regions of the Galaxy. Our results will allow us to constrain many astrophysical questions, such as: the origin of N-Rich stars, the mass contribution from GCs to the stellar halo of the Galaxy, the origin of the Galactic GC system and the mass assembly of the Milky Way.
We summarise recent results from analysis of APOGEE/Gaia data for stellar populations in the Galactic halo, disk, and bulge, leading to constraints on the contribution of dwarf galaxies and globular clusters to the stellar content of the Milky Way halo. Intepretation of the extant data in light of cosmological numerical simulations suggests that the Milky Way has been subject to an unusually intense accretion history at z ≳ 1.5.
The wide geographical distribution and genetic diversity of bat-associated lyssaviruses (LYSVs) across Europe suggest that similar viruses may also be harboured in Italian insectivorous bats. Indeed, bats were first included within the passive national surveillance programme for rabies in wildlife in the 1980s, while active surveillance has been performed since 2008. The active surveillance strategies implemented allowed us to detect neutralizing antibodies directed towards European bat 1 lyssavirus in six out of the nine maternity colonies object of the study across the whole country. Seropositive bats were Myotis myotis, M. blythii and Tadarida teniotis. On the contrary, the virus was neither detected through passive nor active surveillance, suggesting that fatal neurological infection is rare also in seropositive colonies. Although the number of tested samples has steadily increased in recent years, submission turned out to be rather sporadic and did not include carcasses from bat species that account for the majority of LYSVs cases in Europe, such as Eptesicus serotinus, M. daubentonii, M. dasycneme and M. nattereri. A closer collaboration with bat handlers is therefore mandatory to improve passive surveillance and decrypt the significance of serological data obtained up to now.
Agricultural by-products could be used as alternative raw materials in rabbit nutrition as they have been found to be highly nutritious and low cost feeding sources. The aim of this study was to estimate the nutritive value and potential use of bilberry pomace (BP) for growing rabbits. A total of 144 Grimaud rabbits (35 days old) were allotted to four groups and fed with a diet containing increasing level of BP: BP0 (basal diet), BP5, BP10 and BP15 containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg respectively. Growth trial lasted 48 days; apparent digestibility was evaluated, starting at 46 days of age, over 4 consecutive days. The nutritive value of BP was measured using the mean digestibility of the experimental diets. At 83 days of age, rabbits were slaughtered: blood, and liver and kidney samples were collected in order to determine the blood parameters and the antioxidant enzyme activities of the tissues. Moreover, caecal content was sampled and gut microbiota assessed by means of amplicon-based high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The digestible protein was estimated to 104 g/kg of DM while digestible energy to 9.44 MJ/kg DM for incorporation rate up to 150 g/kg. During the finishing period, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio showed linear response to BP increase (P=0.008 and <0.001, respectively). During all the period, both parameters decreased linearly and quadratically with increasing BP inclusion levels (P<0.001) up to 100 g/kg of BP. A significant effect of the antioxidant status was found in the kidneys and liver (P<0.05) where the glutathione peroxidase activity increased as the BP increased. As far as gut microbiota is concerned, BP increased the relative abundance of the Clostridium, Oscillospira, Ruminococcus and Ruminococcaceae species which were clearly associated with the BP inclusion level. In conclusion, BP showed a potential use as an alternative protein and fibre sources for growing rabbits.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of partial or total replacement of finisher diet soybean oil with black soldier fly (Hermethia illucens L.; HI) larva fat on the growth performance, carcass traits, blood parameters, intestinal morphology and histological features of broiler chickens. At 21 days of age, a total of 120 male broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to three experimental groups (five replicates and eight birds/pen). To a basal control diet (C; 68.7 g/kg as fed of soybean oil), either 50% or 100% of the soybean oil was replaced with HI larva fat (HI50 and HI100 group, respectively). Growth performance was evaluated throughout the trial. At day 48, 15 birds (three birds/pen) per group were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Carcass yield and proportions of carcass elements were recorded. Blood samples were taken from each slaughtered chicken for haematochemical index determination. Morphometric analyses were performed on the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of fabricius, kidney and heart were submitted to histological investigations. Growth performance, carcass traits, haematochemical parameters and gut morphometric indexes were not influenced by the dietary inclusion of HI larva fat. Histopathological alterations developed in the spleen, thymus, bursa of fabricius and liver and were identified in all of the experimental groups, but HI larva fat inclusion did not significantly affect (P>0.05) the severity of the histopathological findings. The present study suggests that 50% or 100% replacement of soybean oil with HI larva fat in broiler chickens diets has no adverse effects on growth performance or blood parameters and had no beneficial effect on gut health.
We examined the latent structure of 26 cheese related phenotypes in dairy cattle. Traits related to milk yield and quality (8 traits), milk protein fractions (8 traits), coagulation and curd firmness indicators (CF, 5 traits) and cheese-making phenotypes (cheese yields (%CY) and nutrient recoveries in the curd (REC), 5 traits) were analysed through multivariate factor analysis (MFA) using a varimax rotation. All phenotypes were measured in 1264 Brown Swiss cows. Ten mutual orthogonal, latent variables (factors; Fs) were obtained explaining 74% of the original variability. These Fs captured basic concepts of the cheese-making process. More precisely, the first 4 Fs, sorted by variance explained, were able to capture the underlying structure of the CY percentage (F1: %CY), the CF process with time (F2: CFt), the milk and solids yield (F3: Yield) and the presence of nitrogen (N) in the cheese (F4: Cheese N). Moreover, 4 Fs (F5: as1-β-CN, F7: κ-β-CN, F8: as2-CN and F9: as1-CN-Ph) were related to the basic milk caseins and 1 factor was associated with the α-LA whey protein (F10: α-LA). A factor describing udder health status (F6: Udder health), mainly loaded on lactose, other nitrogen compounds in the milk and SCS, was also obtained. Further, we inferred the effects of some potential sources of variation (e.g. stage of lactation and parity) including feeding and management systems. Stage of lactation had a significant effect for 7 of the 10 Fs, followed by parity of the cow (3 Fs), dairy system and feeding (3 Fs). Our work demonstrates the usefulness of MFA in reducing a large number of variables to a few latent factors with biological meaning and representing groups of traits that describe a complex process like cheese-making. Such an approach would be a valuable tool for studying the influence of different production environments and individual animal factors on protein composition and cheese-making related traits.
The best way to trace back the history of star formation and mass assembly of the Milky Way disc is by combining chemical compositions, ages and phase-space information for a large number of disc stars. With the advent of large surveys of the stellar populations of the Galaxy, such data have become available and can be used to pose constraints on sophisticated models of galaxy formation. We use SDSS-III/APOGEE data to derive the first detailed 3D map of stellar density in the Galactic disc as a function of age, [Fe/H] and [α/Fe]. We discuss the implications of our results for the formation and evolution of the disc, presenting new constraints on the disc structural parameters, stellar radial migration and disc flaring. We also discuss how our results constrain the inside out formation of the disc, and determine the surface-mass density contributions at the solar radius for mono-age, mono-[Fe/H] populations.
Genomic and genetic variation among six Italian chicken native breeds (Livornese, Mericanel della Brianza, Milanino, Bionda Piemontese, Bianca di Saluzzo and Siciliana) were studied using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variants (CNV) as markers. A total of 94 DNA samples genotyped with Axiom® Genome-Wide Chicken Genotyping Array (Affymetrix) were used in the analyses. The results showed the genetic and genomic variability occurring among the six Italian chicken breeds. The genetic relationship among animals was established with a principal component analysis. The genetic diversity within breeds was calculated using heterozygosity values (expected and observed) and with Wright’s F-statistics. The individual-based CNV calling, based on log R ratio and B-allele frequency values, was done by the Hidden–Markov Model (HMM) of PennCNV software on autosomes. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering was applied in each population according to the absence or presence of definite CNV regions (CNV were grouped by overlapping of at least 1 bp). The CNV map was built on a total of 1003 CNV found in individual samples, after grouping by overlaps, resulting in 564 unique CNV regions (344 gains, 213 losses and 7 complex), for a total of 9.43 Mb of sequence and 1.03% of the chicken assembly autosome. All the approaches using SNP data showed that the Siciliana breed clearly differentiate from other populations, the Livornese breed separates into two distinct groups according to the feather colour (i.e. white and black) and the Bionda Piemontese and Bianca di Saluzzo breeds are closely related. The genetic variability found using SNP is comparable with that found by other authors in the same breeds using microsatellite markers. The CNV markers analysis clearly confirmed the SNP results.
Echinacea pallida (EPAL), also known as pale purple coneflower, is a herbaceous flowering plant with immune-enhancement and antioxidative properties. The effect of EPAL on the reproductive performance, serum biochemistry and haematological parameters of rabbit does has been studied here. A total of 100, 21-week-old Grimaud rabbit does, were randomly assigned to two groups. One group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 3 g EPAL/kg diet (Echinacea group, E), while the other was fed the basal diet without the supplementation (control group, C). The reproductive performance of the does was not affected by the treatment (P>0.05). The haematological parameters of pregnant rabbits showed that there was no interaction between gestation day and treatment. The EPAL supplementation induced a reduction (−47.3%) in the basophil cell rate (0.55% and 0.29%, for the control and treatment groups, respectively; P=0.049). The gestation day significantly affected most of the haematological parameters (P<0.05). The white blood cell counts declined progressively after day 14. The mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width, mean platelet volume and eosinophils increased steadily throughout the study, and reached a maximum value on day 28. The red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and neutrophils increased slightly up to day 14, and then subsequently decreased progressively until day 28. The lymphocytes and platelet distribution width decreased until day 14, and then increased to a maximum value on day 28. No significant effect of gestation day or treatment was observed on the blood serum chemistry. As far as the immune parameters are concerned, no significant differences were observed between groups, while a significant effect of gestation day was observed for lysozymes (6.02 v. 7.99 v. 1.91; for 0, 14 and 28 days, respectively; P=0.014). In conclusion, a lack of effect of EPAL has been observed. In fact, no impacts of EPAL have been observed on the reproductive or haematological parameters of the does. The effects of dietary supplementation with EPAL on the performances, bacterial community, blood parameters and immunity in growing rabbits are reported in the second part of this study.
We present results from our investigation of galaxy evolution in dense cluster environments up to redshift z=1.3 based on high S/N ground-based spectroscopy and HST imaging of bulge-dominated galaxies: (1) An analysis of sizes, M/L ratios and line indices of galaxies in massive clusters out to z=1.3. The results are published in Jørgensen & Chiboucas (2013) and Jørgensen et al. (2014). (2) A preliminary analysis (Fig. 1) of absorption line indices, ages, metallicities and abundance ratios for galaxies in nine massive clusters out to z=0.9. New data cover three clusters at z=0.2-0.5.
The suggestion that deliberative democratic approaches would suit the management of bioethical policymaking in democratic pluralistic societies has triggered what has been called the “deliberative turn” in health policy and bioethics. Most of the empirical work in this area has focused on the allocation of healthcare resources and priority setting at the local or national level. The variety of the more or less articulated theoretical efforts behind such initiatives is remarkable and has been accompanied, to date, by an overall lack of method specificity. We propose a set of methodological requirements for online deliberative procedures for bioethics. We provide a theoretical motivation for these requirements. In particular, we discuss and adapt an “epistocratic” proposal and argue that, regardless of its merits as a general political theory, a more refined version of its normative claims can generate a useful framework for the design of bioethical forums that combine maximal inclusiveness with informed and reasonable deliberation.
The ability to predict reward and punishment is essential for decision-making and the ability to learn about an ever-changing environment. Therefore, efforts have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying decision-making, especially regarding how affective and deliberative processes interact with risk behavior. Objective: To adapt to Brazilian Portuguese the Columbia Card Task (CCT) and investigate affective and deliberative processes involved in decision-making. Methods: This study had two main phases: (1) a transcultural adaptation and (2) a pilot study. Results: The feedback manipulation among the three conditions of CCT had an effect on the risk-taking level (p < .005, ES = .201). In addition, the feedback manipulation among the three conditions of CCT had an effect on the information use at both the individual and group levels. Further, a linear regression suggested that the use of information, indicated by the advantageous level of the scenarios, predict the number of cards chosen R2 = .029, p < .001, accounting for 17% of the variance. Conclusions: The Brazilian CCT performs well and is a versatile method for the assessment of affective and deliberative decision-making under risk according to different feedback manipulation scenarios. This study goes further, comparing electrodermal activity during hot and warm conditions and addressing an advantageous level index analysis to asses deliberative processing.
We exhibit a numerical method to compute three-point branched covers of the complex projective line. We develop algorithms for working explicitly with Fuchsian triangle groups and their finite-index subgroups, and we use these algorithms to compute power series expansions of modular forms on these groups.
Methiozolin is a new herbicide from South Korea currently under development in the United States for PRE and POST annual bluegrass control in bentgrass and most other cool- and warm-season turfgrasses. Greenhouse studies were conducted in 2012 at the University of California, Riverside, CA, and Auburn University, Auburn, AL, to evaluate the relative tolerance of three bentgrass species comprised of nine creeping bentgrass (CRBG) cultivars, velvet bentgrass (VBG) and colonial bentgrass (COBG) to methiozolin at 0, 0.6, 1.1, 2.2, 4.5 and 9.0 kg ai ha−1. Methiozolin was applied 7 wk after seeding, followed by a second application 5 wk later. Methiozolin rates that produced 25% injury (TI25) and 50% clipping dry weight reduction (GR50) relative to a nontreated control for each species or cultivar were calculated using four-parameter logistic regression. Turf injury rates at 21 d after second treatment (DAT2) were the most consistent in describing relative tolerance among bentgrass species. Overall, CRBG was more tolerant to methiozolin than VBG or COBG. After two applications, methiozolin rates that caused TI25 were 1.1, 0.2, and 0.3 kg ha−1 for CRBG (across all cultivars), VBG, and COBG, respectively. VBG and COBG were not tolerant of sequential methiozolin applications at rates necessary to control annual bluegrass under field conditions. Herbicide rates that caused TI25 and GR50 decreased with the second application. ‘Penn A-4’ CRBG exhibited the highest TI25 28 d after initial treatment (DAIT) at University of California at Riverside (4.5 kg ha−1), but only 2.5 kg ha−1 with two applications by 21 DAT2. All CRBG cultivars tested tolerated methiozolin at 0.5 kg ha−1, the recommended sequential use rate for putting greens in Korea.