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Viscous flow around spherical macroscopic cavities in a granular material is investigated. The Stokes equation inside and the Darcy–Brinkman equation outside the cavities are considered. In particular, the interaction of two equally sized cavities positioned in tandem is examined in detail, where the asymptotic effect of the other cavity is taken into account. The present analysis gives a reasonable estimate on the volume flow into the cavity and the local enhancement of stresses. This is applicable to predict the microscale waterway formation in that material, onset of landslides, collapse of cliffs and river banks, etc.
Agitation is common across neuropsychiatric disorders and contributes to disability, institutionalization, and diminished quality of life for patients and their caregivers. In 2015 IPA convened a transparent process to build a consensus definition of agitation and agreement on what elements should be included in the syndrome that resulted in publication of provisional guidelines. (Cummings et al, 2015) In the 2020-2021 year, the two co-chairs of this symposium have led a new workgroup to make the provisional consensus definition of agitation in patients with cognitive disorders that can be applied in epidemiologic, non-interventional clinical, pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic interventional, and neurobiological studies and guide treatment final.
Co-Chairs will discuss methods used in updating and findings and compare changes made to the provisional guidelines. Dr. Sano will present new findings on the biological basis of agitation in dementia and Dr. Mintzer will present on application of guidelines in the special circumstances of persons in palliative and hospice care. Dr. Rosenberg will discuss the special circumstance of agitation care in hospital emergency departments. Mr. Splaine will present findings about the utilization of the 2015 guidelines in the peer reviewed literature, professional and government dementia care guidance, and clinical trials.
Cummings, J., Mintzer, J., Brodaty, H., Sano, M., Banerjee, S., Devanand, D., … Zhong, K. (2015). Agitation in cognitive disorders: International Psychogeriatric Association provisional consensus clinical and research definition. International Psychogeriatrics, 27(1), 7-17. doi:10.1017/S1041610214001963
We drilled an 81.2-m-long ice core in the accumulation area (5860 m a.s.l.) of Trambau Glacier in the Rolwaling region during October–November 2019. The drilling operation was conducted with a lightweight electro-mechanical drill system after two reconnaissance fieldworks in 2017 and 2018, during which two shallow firn cores were drilled with a hand auger. The drill system and ice core samples were transported by helicopters at a high elevation of 6000 m a.s.l. A further challenging issue was the ice core transportation between Nepal and Japan, as no regular commercial flight was available for the frozen samples. The addition of dry ice imported from India immediately prior to leaving Nepal allowed the ice core samples to be successfully transported to a cold room in Japan, and remain in a frozen state. Stratigraphic observations during the drilling operation suggest the drill site has been affected by melting and refreezing.
To adequately capture the market structure of vegetables in Japan, it is necessary to develop an oligopolistic model due to the potential market power of producers vs. retailers. We first estimate the market power between producers and retailers by extending the bilateral oligopoly model. Next, we evaluate the role of the wholesale market and its effect on economic welfare. Our results indicate that the wholesale market benefits both producers and consumers through a reduction in retail margins. This study contributes to the industrial organization literature by developing a bilateral oligopoly model and empirically measuring the wholesale market system in Japan.
This study describes the performance of the Multilingual Naming Test (MINT) by Chinese American older adults who are monolingual Chinese speakers. An attempt was also made to identify items that could introduce bias and warrant attention in future investigation.
The MINT was administered to 67 monolingual Chinese older adults as part of the standard dementia evaluation at the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC) at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS), New York, USA. A diagnosis of normal cognition (n = 38), mild cognitive impairment (n = 12), and dementia (n = 17) was assigned to all participants at clinical consensus conferences using criterion sheets developed at the ADRC at ISMMS.
MINT scores were negatively correlated with age and positively correlated with education, showing sensitivity to demographic factors. One item, butterfly, showed no variations in responses across diagnostic groups. Inclusion of responses from different regions of China changed the answers from “incorrect” to “correct” on 20 items. The last five items, porthole, anvil, mortar, pestle, and axle, yielded a high nonresponse rate, with more than 70% of participants responding with “I don’t know.” Four items, funnel, witch, seesaw, and wig, were not ordered with respect to item difficulty in the Chinese language. Two items, gauge and witch, were identified as culturally biased for the monolingual group.
Our study highlights the cultural and linguistic differences that might influence the test performance. Future studies are needed to revise the MINT using more universally recognized items of similar word frequency across different cultural and linguistic groups.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an important technique in male infertility treatment. Currently, sperm selection for ICSI in human assisted reproductive technology (ART) is subjective, based on a visual assessment by the operator. Therefore, it is desirable to develop methods that can objectively provide an accurate assessment of the shape and size of sperm heads that use low-magnification microscopy available in most standard fertility clinics. Recent studies have shown a correlation between sperm head size and shape and chromosomal abnormalities, and fertilization rate, and various attempts have been made to establish automated computer-based measurement of the sperm head itself. For example, a dictionary-learning technique and a deep-learning-based method have both been developed. Recently, an automatic algorithm was reported that detects sperm head malformations in real time for selection of the best sperm for ICSI. These data suggest that a real-time sperm selection system for use in ICSI is necessary. Moreover, these systems should incorporate inverted microscopes (×400–600 magnification) but not the fluorescence microscopy techniques often used for a dictionary-learning technique and a deep-learning-based method. These advances are expected to improve future success rates of ARTs. In this review, we summarize recent reports on the assessment of sperm head shape, size, and acrosome status in relation to fertility, and propose further improvements that can be made to the ARTs used in infertility treatments.
The effects of iron deficiency on the prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum iron levels and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss prognosis and its usefulness as an independent prognostic marker for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
The audiological and haematological data, including hearing recovery and serum iron levels, of 103 patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss evaluated between 2015 and 2018 were retrospectively analysed.
The overall complete recovery rate was 16.5 per cent. Initial higher hearing threshold was associated with poor idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss prognosis. Serum iron levels were significantly higher in the complete recovery group than in the non-complete recovery group (p < 0.05).
The possibility of complete recovery from idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss was significantly lower with lower serum iron levels, suggesting that the serum iron level might be a novel prognostic marker for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Food insecurity among elderly people is a major public health concern due to its association with several health conditions. Despite growing research and implementation of diverse income-based policy measures, food insecurity among elderly people remains a major policy issue in Canada. Additional research could inform food policy beyond strategies that target improving the financial resources of elderly people. Drawing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 24,930), we explored the correlates of food insecurity among older adults using negative log-log logistic regression techniques. Our findings show that certain categories of elderly people are more prone to food insecurity. These segments include seniors who are visible minorities (OR = 1.29, p < 0.01), live alone (OR = 1.13, p < 0.05), have a very weak sense of community belonging (OR = 1.40, p < 0.001), in poor physical health (OR = 1.20, p < 0.01), and those in lower age and income categories. These findings corroborate previous studies that demonstrate that food insecurity among elderly people is a complex phenomenon influenced by diverse socio-economic factors. In Canada, food security policies targeted at elderly people have largely prioritised poverty alleviation through income support programmes. While these programmes can improve the purchasing power of elderly people, they may not be sufficient in ensuring food security. There is a need to embrace and further investigate an integrated approach that pays attention to other contextual socio-economic dynamics.
In 1955, Alain Resnais's now canonical documentary, Nuit et Brouillard (Night and Fog) ended with an ominous question, asking “who, among us, is keeping watch from this strange watchtower [of the ruins of Auschwitz] to warn of the arrival of our new executioners” who might bring about the return of the “concentrationary plague?” One man had already made it his mission to do so: the French writer and former political deportee David Rousset. Rousset had shaken the French world of letters and politics with the 1946 publication of L'univers concentrationnaire (The Concentrationary Universe), which warned of the civilizational and moral cesura that the Nazi camps had been. The term quickly became a widely used conceptual framework. Former deportee and Catholic writer Jean Cayrol borrowed from it to write his voice-over to Night and Fog. In 1949, Rousset published another text that created a scandal in Cold War France: an Appeal to “fellow deportees” calling upon them to “investigate the USSR's concentrationary universe” (Kuby, 46). This indictment fiercely divided the French left. In 1950, he brought a libel suit against another former deportee, communist writer Pierre Daix, who had accused him of amnesiac “apoliticism” (Kuby, 65–6; Dean, 61). Just before, in the wake of his Appeal, Rousset had founded an organization against concentrationary regimes with those, like him, who had been political deportees. In 1951, it put the Soviet Union on trial for crimes against humanity. Rousset and his organization were involved in many trials, eager to denounce the “new executioners” who had revived the “scourge of the camps” in the postwar world. For many today, he is an “exceptional” man because, as philosopher and critic Tzvetan Todorov argues, he was not paralyzed by the memory of “this painful experience”; instead, he harnessed it into action against dehumanizing state violence. For Todorov, Rousset had allowed morality to prevail over base political considerations.
Plant shoot gravitropism is a complex phenomenon resulting from gravity sensing, curvature sensing (proprioception), the ability to uphold self-weight and growth. Although recent data analysis and modelling have revealed the detailed morphology of shoot bending, the relative contribution of bending force (derived from the gravi-proprioceptive response) and stretching force (derived from shoot axial growth) behind gravitropism remains poorly understood. To address this gap, we combined morphological data with a theoretical model to analyze shoot bending in wild-type and lazy1-like 1 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana. Using data from actual bending events, we searched for model parameters that minimized discrepancies between the data and mathematical model. The resulting model suggests that both the bending force and the stretching force differ significantly between the wild type and mutant. We discuss the implications of the mechanical forces associated with differential cell growth and present a plausible mechanical explanation of shoot gravitropism.
Caregivers of persons with Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias are a population in need of support as they are vulnerable to emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion associated with caregiver burnout. While CDC guidelines state that social distancing is the greatest protective factor, it can already exacerbate feelings of isolation and stress. Technology offers the opportunity to maximize socialization and access to healthcare; however, research shows that digital platforms are most underutilized by older and lower socioeconomic patients.
This report describes the transition of a weekly caregiver support group from telephone to video conferencing to improve connectedness during a period of social isolation.
In 2020, the caregiver support group met weekly over the phone. At each session, there were increased discussions of moving the telephone support group to a video platform. A focused discussion about technology platforms was held to gain an understanding of caregiver attitudes and thoughts regarding technology in which caregivers worried that a video platform would be intrusive and invasive. In June 2020, unreliable phone service resulted in the group transitioning to video.
The caregiver group consisted of 5 active members, 2 African American, 2 Asian, and 1 Caucasian. Initial problems included connectivity issues, needing to switch to multiple devices, and assistance with troubleshooting and utilizing the platform. However, caregivers reported feeling that the transition to video was the most natural next step and assisted with reducing feelings of isolation, anxiety, and fear they reported as a result of social distancing due to COVID-19. Caregivers reported feeling connected and because they knew each other so intimately, no longer felt video was intrusive.
For older populations who are not familiar with technology, it is important to take steps before beginning a new platform service. This allows for a natural progression to unfamiliar technology. The video platform provided an opportunity for caregivers to be together while apart, which is important for mental health and decreasing caregiver burden.
We present a long-term seasonal tree ring cellulose oxygen isotope (δ18Oc) time series created by analyzing four segments (S1, S2, S3, and S4) per year during the period of 1951–2009 from southeastern Tibetan Plateau. This intraseasonal δ18Oc reveals the onset and mature phase of the summer monsoon precipitation in this region. Analysis indicates that the δ18Oc of S1 has the strongest correlation with precipitation during the regional monsoon onset (29–33 pentads, May 21–June 10, r = −0.69), and the δ18Oc values for S2, S3, and S4 correlate strongly with June, July, and August precipitation, respectively. Combined δ18Oc of S2, S3, and S4 shows the most robust correlation (r = −0.82) with the mature-phase monsoon precipitation (June-July-August, JJA), passing rigorous statistical tests for calibration and verification in dendroclimatology. These results demonstrate the feasibility in using long-term intraseasonal δ18Oc to reconstruct the Asian summer monsoon's intraseasonal variations.
The Act on medical care and treatment for insane or quasi-insane person who have caused serious incidents in Japan went into effect in July, 2005. It is critical to understand the current situation and the issue concerning medical care in this legal system for revision of the Act five years later. Therefore, this research aims to evaluate and analyze the information comprehensively collected from designated inpatient medical institutions and outpatient medical institutions from a technical standpoint.
The subjects of this research are 50 cases from designated inpatient medical institutions and 4 cases from designated outpatient medical institutions who have been registered as the subject of treatment under the Act. Static information at the time of the treatment starts and dynamic information, such as treatment evaluation usually created periodically in routine work, were the specific documentation for this research. From the information, variables required for analysis of improvement of medical care and operational situation of the Act were collected through the use of a database system.
Results and Conclusion
Since the Act was enacted last year, this one year research remains as a short term monitoring targeting a few cases. In this report, evaluation and progress of treatment of the subject will be presented with the information relevant to the mental illness and the judicial system exposed by collected various kinds of data. From this information, we outline the current situation and issues in this legal system and shows the usability of the result from this monitoring research.
Interstellar dust is traced by not only thermal emission but also scattered light. The scattered light spectrum observed from ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (IR) is useful to constrain some dust properties, such as size distribution, albedo, and composition. Milky Way Galaxy is a unique environment to observe the diffuse scattered light because we can extract it by removing the contribution of starlight. We have observed the UV to near-IR scattered light with space instruments, including Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System (MIRIS). The scattered light spectrum is marginally consistent with prediction from a recent dust model including carbonaceous and silicate grains with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Based on the MIRIS observation of a diffuse cloud, we compare the scattered light color with the dust model with or without grains larger than 1 micrometer. The result shows that the color is consistent with the model without the large grains, which is consistent with recent simulations of dust growth in low-density regions. However, some observations have shown the spectral excess at ∼ 0.6 micrometer wavelength, suggesting the presence of extended red emission (ERE) which cannot be explained by the conventional dust model.
The practical realization of rechargeable organic batteries is stalled by their low electron conductivity, which limits the organic-active material content in the electrode composite and results in a low net electrode energy density. Additionally, the dissolution of active materials into the electrolyte causes a short cycle life. In this study, a conductive polymer mixture, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/polystyrenesulfonate, containing a small amount of sugar alcohol was used as the binder and separator in a rechargeable organic battery. Consequently, the active material content was increased up to 80 wt%, and the cycle life was extended.
The story of late modern feminist thought is not a story of waves or turns that succeed one another. Feminist thought does not follow a simple linear temporality, even if we often tend to tell the story that way. Building on intellectual feminist traditions as well as engaging with their historical moment, feminist thinkers follow a more complicated periodization. As the incarnation of a long feminist tradition, post-1968 feminism holds an especially important place in the story of late modern Europe and its intellectual and political revolutions, though that place is often seen to be historically past, even antiquated. It has been conventionally named as belonging to the “second wave,” making claims to demands beyond the right to vote. A more fruitful framework, however, would be to think of late-twentieth-century feminist thought emerging out of overlaps, echoes, and legacies that often coexisted in the same moment. It both reflected and subverted the conventions and norms of its time, while maintaining its transgressive and utopian orientation. At the heart of feminist projects lay the imperative to theorize and wrestle with the category of “woman” and how it had been given meaning through time and in culture.