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As the first play of the Terentian corpus, Andria has always attracted a special level of attention. It was the first Roman comedy produced after antiquity (at Florence in 1476) and the first translated into English, and it has inspired writers from Jonson and Dryden to Thornton Wilder. It provides an excellent introduction to Terence 's particular style of comedy, noteworthy for its ambivalence in representing the perspectives of woman and slaves and its experiments with a secondary plot line. The commentary is designed both to help students with the basic linguistic and technical problems confronting inexperienced readers of Roman comedy and to open discussion of essential interpretive questions involving the play and its relation to the wider comic corpus, as well as the utility of comedy for furthering our understanding of the Roman world and its values.
Children with aggressive behavior problems may aggress for different reasons, requiring tailored assessment and treatment. The aim of this study was to test whether it is possible to detect distinct social information processing (SIP) profiles among boys with aggressive behavior problems. We therefore conducted Latent Profile Analyses on boys’ SIP patterns assessed in interactive virtual reality. Additionally, we examined the discriminant validity of these SIP profiles by comparing them on theoretically relevant child characteristics (i.e., temperament, executive functioning, aggressive belief systems, punishment insensitivity, sensation seeking). We presented boys (N = 181; ages 7–13) with a virtual classroom where they could play games with virtual peers. They reported on their SIP in four virtual reality scenarios, designed to assess reactive and proactive aggressive SIP. Results revealed four distinct SIP profiles: a general reactive SIP profile, a situation-specific reactive SIP profile, a mixed reactive-proactive SIP profile, and a nonaggressive SIP profile. Planned contrasts revealed that boys with these SIP profiles differed in temperament, aggressive belief systems, and punishment insensitivity, but not in executive functioning and sensation seeking. Overall, findings suggest that boys differ in the exact SIP patterns underlying their aggressive behavior, providing inroads to tailor interventions to children’s individual needs.
Solvent exchange is a process involving mixing between a good solvent with dissolved solute and a poor solvent. The process creates local oversaturation which causes the nucleation of minute solute droplets. Such ternary systems on a macro-scale have remained unexplored in the turbulent regime. We experimentally study the solvent exchange process by injecting mixtures of ethanol and trans-anethole into water, forming a turbulent buoyant jet in the upward direction. Locally, turbulent mixing causes oversaturation of the trans-anethole following turbulent entrainment. We optically measure the concentration of the nucleated droplets using a light attenuation technique and find that the radial concentration profile has a sub-Gaussian kurtosis. In contrast to the entrainment-based models, the spatial evolution of the oversaturation reveals continuous droplet nucleation downstream and radially across the jet, which we attribute to the limited mixing capacity of the jet. Although we are far from a full quantitative understanding, this work extends the knowledge on solvent exchange into the turbulent regime, and brings in a novel type of flow, broadening the scope of multicomponent, multiphase turbulent jets with phase transition.
Ethical decision making has long been recognized as critical for industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologists in the variety of roles they fill in education, research, and practice. Decisions with ethical implications are not always readily apparent and often require consideration of competing concerns. The American Psychological Association (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct are the principles and standards to which all Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) members are held accountable, and these principles serve to aid in decision making. To this end, the primary focus of this article is the presentation and application of an integrative ethical decision-making framework rooted in and inspired by empirical, philosophical, and practical considerations of professional ethics. The purpose of this framework is to provide a generalizable model that can be used to identify, evaluate, resolve, and engage in discourse about topics involving ethical issues. To demonstrate the efficacy of this general framework to contexts germane to I-O psychologists, we subsequently present and apply this framework to five scenarios, each involving an ethical situation relevant to academia, practice, or graduate education in I-O psychology. With this article, we hope to stimulate the refinement of this ethical decision-making model, illustrate its application in our profession, and, most importantly, advance conversations about ethical decision making in I-O psychology.
Access to affordable housing is a rising concern, and social housing is one approach to support low-income, older renters. A scoping review was undertaken to understand the characteristics of older tenants and social housing services to identify strategies to promote aging in place. Seven peer review databases were searched to identify relevant articles. A total of 146 articles were included. Almost all examined socio-demographic and health characteristics of older tenants, while 72 per cent examined social housing services, including eligibility policies, staffing, and access to on-site services. This review points to a high vulnerability among older tenants and highlights the importance of co-locating services on-site with a tenant-facing support staff to identify vulnerable tenants and link them to services. More research on tenancy issues (e.g., unit condition, rental management) is needed to identify new opportunities for social housing landlords to help older tenants age in place.
Background: In Ghana, treatment of surgical site infections (SSIs) is often empirical and not based on targeted therapy (ie, knowledge of the organisms infecting surgical sites or their susceptibility profiles). This empirical approach most often leads to inappropriate prescription, which is a major driver of antimicrobial resistance. Using phenotypic and molecular tools, we investigated S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa recovered from patients with SSIs. Methods: Identification of bacteria species recovered from wound swabs and aspirates was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was done using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results were interpreted according to the CLSI 2018 guidelines. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) positivity was detected among the gram-negative isolates using the double disk-diffusion method and PCR amplification of ESBL genes (blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaCTX-M). Staphylococcus aureus isolates resistant to cefoxitin were further tested for the presence of mecA using PCR. Results: In total, 312 patients were enrolled in this prospective study. The 243 bacteria species identified comprised Escherichia coli (34%; 107 of 312), Klebsiella pneumoniae (20%; 62 of 312), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16%; 49 of 312), and S. aureus (8%; 25 of 312). S. aureus isolates were susceptible to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, linezolid, rifampicin, and norfloxacin, but 10 S. aureus isolates were resistant to cefoxitin and were positive for the mecA gene (MRSA). Among the 169 isolates in the Enterobactericae category (E. coli and K. pneumoniae), 143 (85%) were resistant to tetracycline; 141 (83%) were resistant to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole; 118 (70%) were resistant to cefotaxime; 111 (66%) were resistant to cefuroxime; 98 (58%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin; 86 (51%) were resistant to gentamicin; and 81 (48%) were resistant to chloramphenicol. However, 161 (95%) were sensitive to amikacin and 159 (94%) were sensitive to meropenem. Among the 49 P. aeruginosa isolates, 45 (92%) showed sensitivity to amikacin, 43 (88%) showed sensitivity to meropenem, 35 (71%) showed sensitivity to gentamicin, and 35 (71%) showed sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. ESBL was detected in 59 (55%) of 107 E. coli isolates, and 48 (77%) of 62 K. pneumoniae isolates. blaCTX-M was the dominant ESBL gene in E. coli isolates (34 of 59, 58%). For K. pneumoniae isolates, blaCTX-M genes were detected in 45 (94%) of 48 isolates and blaSHV genes were detected in 44 (92%) of 48 isolates. Among the 49 P. aeruginosa isolates, 3 harbored the blaTEM gene. Conclusions: The findings of high proportions of ESBL-producing bacteria species in Ghana is a grave public health concern. Data generated in this study will inform treatment decisions and policies and appropriate antibiogram development and will support antimicrobial stewardship programs at the respective healthcare facilities in Ghana.
The study was a randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of the Group Triple P Program for Chinese immigrant parents living in New Zealand. Sixty-seven Chinese immigrant parents of a 5- to 9-year-old child with disruptive behaviour problems were randomly allocated to either an intervention or a waitlist group. Parents completed measures of child adjustment problems, general parenting practices, parenting practices in children's academic lives, parental adjustment, parental teamwork, and family relationships at pre-, post-, and 4-month follow-up. Intervention group ratings of programme satisfaction were collected following programme completion. Significant short-term intervention effects were found for improvements in child behaviour, parenting practices, parental teamwork, and parenting in the child academic context. All intervention effects, except for parental teamwork, were maintained at 4-month follow-up. There were no significant intervention effects for parental adjustment, however, medium effect sizes were found at post-intervention and follow-up. A high level of programme satisfaction was reported.
West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) is a severe neurological illness that can result from West Nile virus (WNV) infection, with long-term disability and death being common outcomes. Although WNV arrived in North America over two decades ago, risk factors for WNND are still being explored. The objective of this study was to identify WNND comorbid risk factors in the Ontario population using a retrospective, population-based cohort design. Incident WNV infections from laboratory records between 1 January 2002 – 31 December 2012 were individually-linked to health administrative databases to ascertain WNND outcomes and comorbid risk factors. WNND incidence was compared among individuals with and without comorbidities using risk ratios (RR) calculated with log binomial regression.
Three hundred and forty-five individuals developed WNND (18.3%) out of 1884 WNV infections. West Nile encephalitis was driving most associations with comorbidities. Immunocompromised (aRR 2.61 [95% CI 1.23–4.53]) and male sex (aRR 1.32 [95% CI 1.00–1.76]) were risk factors for encephalitis, in addition to age, for which each 1-year increase was associated with a 2% (aRR 1.02 [95% CI 1.02–1.03]) relative increase in risk. Our results suggest that individuals living with comorbidities are at higher risk for WNND, in particular encephalitis, following WNV infection.
Bilingualism is hard to define, measure, and study. Sparked by the “replication crisis” in the social sciences, a recent discussion on the advantages of open science is gaining momentum. Here, we join this debate to argue that bilingualism research would greatly benefit from embracing open science. We do so in a unique way, by presenting six fictional stories that illustrate how open science practices – sharing preprints, materials, code, and data; pre-registering studies; and joining large-scale collaborations – can strengthen bilingualism research and further improve its quality.
The rise of patriarchal populist leaders over the past decade has fortified a long-standing campaign by conservative governments and advocacy groups to undermine women’s international human rights. Their efforts have increasingly focused on revising language as a means to challenge and weaken the international norms and organizations essential to women’s and girls’ equality and health. Through our textual analysis of UN records, governmental and nongovernmental publications, media coverage of disputes over language, and background interviews with activists, we identify and delineate the significance of this ‘norm spoiling’ strategy and trace its expansion during the Trump administration. We find that women’s rights challengers have pursued three distinct spoiling tactics based in language: controlling what women’s rights advocates can say through policies such as the United States’ ‘global gag rule’; altering the meaning of women’s rights by reframing them as an attack on other rights, such as religious freedom; and deleting foundational words, such as ‘gender’ and ‘sexual and reproductive health and rights’, from international agreements. The role of language in today’s patriarchal populism goes beyond populist leaders’ speeches, rallies and tweets. Their governments and allies systematically control, alter or delete words central to women’s rights.
This study seeks to identify Alzheimer’s and related dementias (ADRD) biomarkers associated with postoperative delirium (POD) via meta-analysis.
A comprehensive search was conducted. Studies met the following inclusion criteria: >18 years of age, identified POD with standardized assessment, and biomarker measured in the AT(N)-X (A = amyloid, T = tau, (N)=neurodegeneration, X-Other) framework. Exclusion criteria: focus on prediction of delirium, delirium superimposed on dementia, other neurologic or psychiatric disorders, or terminal delirium. Reviewers extracted and synthesized data for the meta-analysis.
Patients with POD.
Primary outcome: association between POD and ATN-X biomarkers. Secondary outcomes involved sample heterogeneity.
28 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Studies focused on inflammatory and neuronal injury biomarkers; there were an insufficient number of studies for amyloid and tau biomarker analysis. Two inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, and CRP) showed a significant relationship with POD (IL-6 n = 10, standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36–0.70; CRP n = 14, SMD: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.33–0.74). Two neuronal injury biomarkers (blood-based S100B and NfL) were positively associated with POD (S100B n = 5, SMD: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.11–0.69; NFL n = 2, SMD: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.28–1.57). Of note, many analyses were impacted by significant study heterogeneity.
This meta-analysis identified an association between certain inflammatory and neuronal injury biomarkers and POD. Future studies will need to corroborate these relationships and include amyloid and tau biomarkers in order to better understand the relationship between POD and ADRD.
A future sustainable dietary pattern for Japanese is yet undefined. This study aimed to explore more sustainable Japanese diets that are nutritious, affordable and with low greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and particular emphasis on cultural acceptability. A newly developed data envelopment analysis (DEA) diet model was applied to 4-d dietary record data among 184 healthy Japanese men and 185 women volunteers aged 21–69 years. Alternative diets were calculated as the linear combinations of observed diets. Firstly, for each individual, four modelled diets were calculated that maximised cultural acceptability (i.e. minimise dietary change from observed diet), maximised nutritional quality assessed by the Nutrient-Rich Food Index (NRF), minimised monetary diet costs or minimised diet-related GHGE. The final modelled diet combined all four indicators. In the first four models, the largest improvement was obtained for each targeted indicator separately, while relatively small improvements or unwanted changes were observed for other indicator. When all indicators were aimed to optimise, the NRF score and diet-related GHGE were improved by 8–13 % with the lower monetary cost than observed diets, although the percentage improvement was a bit smaller than the separate models. The final modelled diets demanded increased intakes for whole grains, fruits, milk/cream/yogurt, legumes/nuts, and decreased intakes for red and processed meat, sugar/confectioneries, alcoholic and sweetened beverages, and seasonings in both sexes. In conclusion, more sustainable dietary patterns considering several indicators are possible for Japanese, while total improvement is moderate due to trade-offs between indicators and methodological limitation of DEA diet model.
A maternally inherited novel pathogenic non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding gene variant c.767G>T, p.R256I [NM_001145408], manifested in a male infant as dilated cardiomyopathy with severe left ventricular dysfunction and dilation, biventricular non-compaction, tricuspid hypoplasia, and hydrocephaly. To the best of our knowledge, no previous non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding gene variants with biventricular non-compaction have been associated with tricuspid valve hypoplasia. Hence, this case introduces a new pathogenic variant observed in the non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding gene and adds to the range of cardiac phenotypes identified in non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding gene variants.
My old friend Daniel Boyarin has raised, not for the first time, the problem of whether one can imagine what he calls “an ethical form of Jewish collective continuity.” He strikes out against the notion of such a “Jewish” ethical continuity seeing it having been negated in the present discussion, the negation driven by two arguments, “[Christian] supersessionism” on the right and “territorial nationalism” on the left. Whether it is possible “to inform prejudice against collective Jewish continuity is perhaps mitigated when Jews per se are obviously the objects of collective discrimination, and correspondingly exacerbated when Jews as a collective appear to be ‘powerful’ or ‘secure.’” Anti-Semitism or the “model minority.”
This chapter discusses the human factors foundations of trust, specifically human-automation trust. Trust in automation can be conceptualized as a three-factor model consisting of the human trustor, the automated trustee, and the environment or context. In this model, qualities of the human (such as experience), work with qualities of the robot (such as form) in an environment that also influences the nature of the interaction. Since trust is constantly evolving, time itself is also a facet of trust in human-automation interactions. Measurement of trust is challenging because trust itself is a latent variable, and not directly observable. However, measurement is necessary to ensure trust is appropriately calibrated and there is not a mismatch between the trustors’ expectations, and the trustees’ capabilities. Trust measures include self-report or survey-type measures, behavioral observations, and biological measures.
When a party or candidate loses the popular vote but still wins the election, do voters view the winner as legitimate? This scenario, known as an electoral inversion, describes the winners of two of the last six presidential elections in the United States. We report results from two experiments testing the effect of inversions on democratic legitimacy in the US context. Our results indicate that inversions significantly decrease the perceived legitimacy of winning candidates. Strikingly, this effect does not vary with the margin by which the winner loses the popular vote, nor by whether the candidate benefiting from the inversion is a co-partisan. The effect is driven by Democrats, who punish inversions regardless of candidate partisanship; few effects are observed among Republicans. These results suggest that the experience of inversions increases sensitivity to such outcomes among supporters of the losing party.
THE country house is a perfect symbol of idealized England: solid, imposing, and ancient, yet warm and inviting. In the seventeenth century these country seats were put into poetry as metaphorical distillations of the virtues of the gentry. Many of the great poets of that century, from Ben Jonson to Thomas Carew, wrote poems in a genre that came to be known as “Country House Poems.” Many poets in this tradition are considered “Cavalier Poets” because of their loyalty to the throne before and during the English Civil War. This category, however, is not fixed; to this day the debate continues as to what, besides loyalty to the monarch, defines a Cavalier Poet. In the 1970s, Earl Miner proposed a new way of looking at the Cavaliers in his essay “The Cavalier Ideal of the Good Life.” Instead of using a timeline, or looking at poetic form or meter, Miner suggests that the Cavaliers are united around a common desire: the desire to explore the elements that made up “the good life.” Miner notes that “Cavalier social values are those of an aristocracy and gentry that two centuries before might have struggled against the throne, but that now sought to protect the King, for all his faults … against his enemies and to preserve crown, mitre, estates, and what was often termed ‘our liberties.’” Though disparate in their backgrounds, beliefs, meter, and form, the Cavalier Poets shared a common aesthetic: this idea of “the good life.” The elements of this bonum vitae can be summed up as “a conservative outlook, a response to a social threat, classical recollections, love of a very English way of life, and a new blending of old ideas.” All of these features reveal “a consistent urge to define and explore the features of what constituted human happiness.” Right at the center of this exploration sits the country house poem. What better way is there to look back on the past, and promote aristocratic ideals and conservative principles, than by praising a country seat? This article expands on Miner's idea of the Cavalier ideal of the “good life,” particularly as it relates to the country house poem, by showing that “The Description of Cookham” by Aemilia Lanyer and “A Description of an Island” by Margaret Cavendish may both be construed as Cavalier poetry using the definition proposed by Miner.