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Bilinguals’ two languages seem to be coactivated in parallel during reading, speaking, and listening. However, this coactivation in writing has been scarcely studied. This study aimed to assess orthographic coactivation during spelling-to-dictation. We took advantage of the presence of polyvalent graphemes in Spanish (one phonological representation with two orthographic specifications, e.g., / b /for both the graphemes v and b) to manipulate orthographic congruency. Spanish–English bilinguals were presented with cross-linguistic congruent (movement–movimiento) and incongruent words (government–gobierno) for a dictation task. The time and accuracy to initiate writing and to type the rest-of-word (lexical and sublexical processing) were recorded in both the native language (L1) and the second language (L2). Results revealed no differences between conditions in monolinguals. Bilinguals showed a congruency and language interaction with better performance for congruent stimuli, which was evident from the beginning of typing in L2. Language coactivation and lexical–sublexical interaction during bilinguals’ writing are discussed.
Negative interactions between people and crocodilians have increased worldwide, but in Mexico there have been few systematic reports and no rigorous evaluation of this problem. We compiled information on negative interactions between people and the spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus and American crocodile Crocodylus acutus from the Worldwide Crocodilian Attack Database for 1993–2018, and we investigated interactions in greater depth, through interviews with people in La Encrucijada Biosphere Reserve. We examined the relationship between the occurrence of negative interactions between people and C. acutus and the species' nesting season and abundance, and presence records. In Mexico, the frequency of negative interactions increases when anthropogenic activities occur close to nesting sites (< 30 km) and during the nesting season (February–September). In La Encrucijada, following negative interactions with crocodiles, the local inhabitants killed 30 crocodiles measuring > 2.5 m long in 2011–2012. The frequency of negative human–crocodilian interactions was not correlated with the abundance of crocodilians but was correlated with the number of presence records of crocodiles. Strategies to minimize these interactions include warnings at nesting sites, increased monitoring of anthropogenic activities during the nesting season, and management of nests to prevent them being destroyed by people.
This study evaluated the correlation between patient and clinician subjective voice analysis in a group of patients suffering from muscular tension dysphonia. This disease does not usually present with organic lesions, and voice analysis is crucial to evaluate it.
A retrospective study with 75 patients was performed. Correlation between grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain scale and voice handicap index-10 was analysed. Any possible influence of the type of muscular tension dysphonia on these two scales was studied.
There are only a few studies that correlate voice handicap index-10 and the grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain scale; however, none of them are specific for patients suffering from muscular tension dysphonia. A moderate correlation (r = 0.56) was found. No influence of muscular tension dysphonia type on voice handicap index-10 score was found, but muscular tension dysphonia type 4 had worse grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia and strain scale scores than other muscular tension dysphonia types. This could be explained if muscular tension dysphonia type 4 is considered to be the most severe form of this disease.
The use of assessment scales based on the opinion of both the clinician and patient must be considered as complementary clinical tools in order to perform a complete assessment of dysphonia.
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality worldwide, and childhood excess weight/obesity are strong correlators of accumulated risk in later life. A relationship between maternal preeclampsia and offspring’s childhood obesity is recognized, but most studies fail to control for strong confounders. Our goal is to analyze the association between preeclampsia and childhood excess weight/obesity, after accounting for important confounders. We recruited 5133 women with singleton pregnancies during admission for delivery. Sixty-seven pregnancies were complicated by preeclampsia. Maternal and children outcomes were assessed at 10 years of age. We analyzed the association between preeclampsia and childhood excess weight/obesity by fitting a linear regression model (using offspring body mass index (BMI) z-score at 10 years of age) and a logistic regression model (using excess weight/obesity status). We then controlled both models for known confounders, namely maternal prepregnancy BMI, parity, and smoking during pregnancy. At 10 years of age, offspring of preeclamptic mothers had a higher BMI z-score and were more likely classified as overweight/obese, but these differences were not statistically significant. After controlling for maternal prepregnancy BMI, parity, and smoking during pregnancy, there was a high magnitude change in the beta coefficient of preeclampsia in the linear (0.175; −0.014) and the logistic regression models (1.48; 1.23) suggesting that the association between preeclampsia and childhood excess weigh/obesity is significantly confounded by these variables. These confounders also showed a significant association with childhood obesity. This finding suggests that in utero exposure to preeclampsia seems to have less impact in childhood obesity than the previously described confounders.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: My work focuses on understanding the role of an immunomodulatory pathway in Alzheimer’s disease as a potential therapeutic target. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: My long-term goal is to develop effective drugs to halt the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The overall objective of this translational work is to study the deregulation of the Lanthionine Synthetase C-like 2 (LANCL2) immunomodulatory pathway in AD. I hypothesize that stimulation of the LANCL2 pathway will inhibit progression of AD. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: These studies use a transgenic rat model of AD, and a LANCL2-binding drug, BT-11, that crosses the BBB. Tg-AD Fisher 344 rats express human APP with the Swedish mutation and human presenilin-1 with the ? exon 9 mutation. Tg-AD rats develop age-dependent AD-like pathology. Rodent chow containing BT-11 (10mg/Kg bw) was administered orally from 5 months of age (pre-pathology) to 11 months of age. Eight groups of rats (8 rats/group) were included: WT and Tg-AD x 2 sexes x 2 conditions (BT-11 treated and untreated). Rats are analyzed for: (1) Spatial learning and memory with an active place avoidance test. (2) AD pathology including amyloid plaques and activated microglia, with hippocampal immunohistochemistry. (3) LANCL2-signaling and other AD relevant pathways, with hippocampaI western blot and RNAseq analyses. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: I predict that BT-11 will prevent and/or mitigate some aspects of AD pathology displayed by the AD transgenic rats (Tg-AD). Tg-AD rats treated with BT-11 should perform better in the spatial learning and memory tasks, than the untreated Tg-AD rats. I also expect that the immunohistochemical analysis will reveal reduced pathological hallmarks, including amyloid plaques and reactive microglia, in hippocampal tissue of BT-11 treated versus untreated Tg-AD rats. Through western blot and RNAseq analyses, I will establish how BT-11 treatment affects the LANCL2 signaling cascade as well as other AD relevant pathways, in treated and untreated rats from both sexes and both genotypes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: My proposed translational research will address the potential of targeting the LANCL2 pathway to improve AD treatment. Discovering the effects of stimulating the LANCL2 pathway on AD pathology is a novel approach in AD drug development. I expect that my studies with BT-11 will positively influence therapeutic outcomes of this devastating condition.
MANY SCHOLARS, OF whom Adeline Rucquoi is one of the most prominent, have recommended eradicating the term “legitimation” from any discussion of monarchical institutions in the Iberian Peninsula, a conclusion to which I concur after my studies on Spanish royal symbols and insignia in material, documentary, and iconographic sources. Successors to the throne of Aragon were authorized by the right of primogeniture; so, a successor's investiture as King of Aragon was based on this principle alone. The case of James or Jaume I “the Conqueror” is illustrative because although he never took part in any coronation ceremony, in 1213 he was named King of Aragon immediately after the death of his father Peter the Great, King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier.3 Nevertheless, I use this problematic term extensively throughout this chapter because the fact that James I was denied a formal coronation led him to create a series of other techniques designed to legitimize his rule. One of the strongest and most illuminating arguments in favour of this hypothesis was put forward by Bonifacio Palacios, who stated that James I invoked the “right of conquest” to justify his sovereignty over newly conquered lands. However, as we will see, James I also employed other legitimizing narratives, such as the supposed assistance that he received from St. George during his conquest of the kingdoms of Mallorca and Valencia, because, of course, the idealized image of the monarch was not limited to the military sphere alone, but had to portray other virtues such as religious legitimacy.
This chapter shows how and to what extent these legitimizing techniques, motivated by the lack of a Church-sanctioned coronation, were reflected in the iconography of Iberian kings of the Middle Ages, in particular James I (the Conqueror) and Peter the Ceremonious, and how they were used to seal into memory a set of arguments. It also determines why Peter the Ceremonious, who had to assert his potestas over the increasingly powerful estates, was so active in disseminating these techniques through texts and images and thereby fixing them in the memory of his subjects. As has been stated elsewhere, Hispanic medieval culture was, in itself, a memorial culture that sought to foster solemn recollection in which art played an indispensable role.
Mental health-related multimorbidity can be considered as multimorbidity in the presence of a mental disorder. Some knowledge gaps on the study of mental health-related multimorbidity were identified. These knowledge gaps could be potentially addressed with real-world data.
The Monitoring Studies (MS) program, the approach developed by RedETS to generate postlaunch real-world evidence (RWE), is intended to complement and enhance the conventional health technology assessment process to support health policy decision making in Spain, besides informing other interested stakeholders, including clinicians and patients. The MS program is focused on specific uncertainties about the real effect, safety, costs, and routine use of new and insufficiently assessed relevant medical devices carefully selected to ensure the value of the additional research needed, by means of structured, controlled, participative, and transparent procedures. However, despite a clear political commitment and economic support from national and regional health authorities, several difficulties were identified along the development and implementation of the first wave of MS, delaying its execution and final reporting. Resolution of these difficulties at the regional and national levels and a greater collaborative impulse in the European Union, given the availability of an appropriate methodological framework already provided by EUnetHTA, might provide a faster and more efficient comparative RWE of improved quality and reliability at the national and international levels.
This study aimed to characterise food consumption among students at the University of Carthage (Tunisia), assessing quality of diet and main dietary patterns, and their association with potential conditioning factors.
Cross-sectional study. Participants self-reported food consumption in two 24-h recalls and information about sociodemographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics such as BMI, birthplace, physical activity, eating places or kitchen appliances. Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) index (NRF9.3) were used to assess diet quality. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify eating patterns. Linear regression models were used to test the association of dietary patterns with the diet quality markers.
Students at the University of Carthage, Tunisia.
Almost 96 % of participants need shifts towards healthier food. Four main food patterns were identified ‘Traditional food’, ‘Transitional food’, ‘European breakfast’ and ‘Western food’. ‘Traditional food’ was the first dietary model, positively associated with MDS and NRF9.3. Women showed higher adherence to ‘European breakfast’ and higher quality of diet by NRF9.3. Students eating out of home showed higher adherence to ‘Western food’, those who never kept a regular schedule of meals consumed lower amount of vegetables and tubers, and sedentary or low active students had a higher intake of ready-to-eat products.
Diet quality of the participating Tunisian students is inadequate, but traditional Mediterranean diet remains the main pattern in spite of the advanced transitional nutrition. Some lifestyle risk behaviours affecting quality of diet were identified in this work, which supports the youth’s particular vulnerability.
This paper aims to describe the development of a flowchart to guide the decisions of researchers in the Spanish Network for Health Technology Assessment of the National Health System (RedETS) regarding patient involvement (PI) in Health Technology Assessment (HTA). By doing so, it reflects on current methodological challenges in PI in the HTA field: how best to combine PI methods and what is the role of patient-based evidence.
A decisional flowchart for PI in HTA was developed between March and April 2019 following an iterative process, reviewed by the members of the PI Interest Group and other RedETS members and validated during an online deliberative meeting. The development of the flowchart was based on a previous methodological framework assessed in a pilot study.
The guidelines on how to involve patients in HTA in the RedETS were graphically represented in a flowchart. PI must be included in all HTA reports, except those that assess technologies with no relevant impact on patients’ experiences, values, and preferences. Patient organizations or expert patients related to the topic of the HTA report must be identified and invited. These patients can participate in protocol development, outcomes' identification, assessment process, and report review. When the technology assessed affects in a relevant way patient experiences, values, and preferences, patient-based evidence should be included through a systematic literature review or a primary study.
The decisional flowchart for PI in HTA contributes to the current methodological challenges by proposing a combination of direct involvement and patient-based evidence.
Social cognition (SC) comprises an array of cognitive and affective abilities such as social perception, theory of mind, empathy, and social behavior. Previous studies have suggested the existence of deficits in several SC abilities in Parkinson disease (PD), although not unanimously.
The aim of this study is to assess the SC construct and to explore its relationship with cognitive state in PD patients.
We compare 19 PD patients with cognitive decline, 27 cognitively preserved PD patients, and 29 healthy control (HC) individuals in social perception (static and dynamic emotional facial recognition), theory of mind, empathy, and social behavior tasks. We also assess processing speed, executive functions, memory, language, and visuospatial ability.
PD patients with cognitive decline perform worse than the other groups in both facial expression recognition tasks and theory of mind. Cognitively preserved PD patients only score worse than HCs in the static facial expression recognition task. We find several significant correlations between each of the SC deficits and diverse cognitive processes.
The results indicate that some components of SC are impaired in PD patients. These problems seem to be related to a global cognitive decline rather than to specific deficits. Considering the importance of these abilities for social interaction, we suggest that SC be included in the assessment protocols in PD.
The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of 25-OH-D status (insufficiency and deficiency) in children and adolescents residing in Bucaramanga, Colombia and to determine its association with excess weight. A case–control study was nested in the SIMBA II cohort in children and adolescents between the ages of 11 and 20 years old. Cases were defined as those children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. The control group was composed of children and adolescents from the same population sample with similar sociodemographic and economic characteristics but without overweight or obesity diagnosis. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) was quantified in serum using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between vitamin D status and overweight or obesity adjusted for the main confounding variables. A total of 494 children and adolescents cases were 138 (52⋅17% boys and 47⋅83% girls; median age 16⋅0 [Q1 15; Q3 18]). The median BMI S-Score minors age in the cases was 1⋅36 [Q1 1⋅06; Q3 2⋅00] and BMI (kg/m2) 28⋅0 [Q1 26⋅2; Q3 30⋅8]. The prevalence of vitamin D in the cases was deficiency 16⋅67%, insufficiency 57⋅25%, sufficiency 26⋅09. 25-OH-D insufficiency was associated with overweight or obesity after adjusting for the main confounding variables (OR 1⋅73; 95% CI 1⋅05–2⋅84). Our study concludes that the 25-OH-D insufficiency is common in children and adolescents in Bucaramanga, Colombia, and it was associated with overweight or obesity.
The genera Ophiophragmus and Amphiodia are amphiurids that are considered taxonomically difficult due to their great resemblance, few diagnostic characters and synonymy problems. Our aim is to redescribe the species using scanning electron microscopy and morphometry of diagnostic structures, and to provide new information for the identification of these Ophiuroidea. Five Amphiodia spp. and six Ophiophragmus spp. recorded in Brazil were rigorously redescribed. The descriptions include new diagnostic characters derived from external morphology, arm microstructures and morphometry. We also provided comparative analyses of species with shared characters such as Amphiodia riisei and Amphiodia trychna. The geographic and bathymetric distributions of the studied species were updated, and new records are provided. All the information presented may be used in taxonomic, ecological and phylogenetic studies, helping to fill gaps in the knowledge of the biodiversity, ecology and evolution of these Ophiuroidea. Conclusively, all the tools applied here assisted in the identification of genera and species and could be useful in other taxonomic studies of Echinodermata.
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is recognized as an invasive pest in Europe and North America. In Mexico, it is one of the main insect pests of soft-skinned fruits such as blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, plums, and guava. Previous studies have shown that D. suzukii uses visual and chemical cues during host plant searching. This knowledge has been used to develop traps and attractants for monitoring D. suzukii. In this study, five trap designs were evaluated to monitor D. suzukii under field conditions. Traps were baited with SuzukiiTrap®, Z-Kinol, an attractant based on acetoin and methionol, or apple cider vinegar (ACV) enriched with 10% ethanol (EtOH) with the synergistic action of carbon dioxide (CO2). Our results suggested that the attractant was the determining factor in capturing D. suzukii, while trap design seemed to play a modest role. We found that traps baited with Z-Kinol captured the highest number of D. suzukii compared to that caught by traps baited with SuzukiiTrap®, or ACV + EtOH + CO2. The highest catch numbers occurred in blackberry, followed by strawberry, raspberry, and blueberry. Traps captured more females than males. The results obtained may be useful for monitoring D. suzukii populations in Mexico and elsewhere, particularly in states where soft fruit crops are a component of agricultural activities.
Darwin's frogs Rhinoderma darwinii and Rhinoderma rufum are the only known species of amphibians in which males brood their offspring in their vocal sacs. We propose these frogs as flagship species for the conservation of the Austral temperate forests of Chile and Argentina. This recommendation forms part of the vision of the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs, which was launched in 2018. The strategy is a conservation initiative led by the IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, which in 2017 convened 30 governmental, non-profit and private organizations from Chile, Argentina and elsewhere. Darwin's frogs are iconic examples of the global amphibian conservation crisis: R. rufum is categorized as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) on the IUCN Red List, and R. darwinii as Endangered. Here we articulate the conservation planning process that led to the development of the conservation strategy for these species and present its main findings and recommendations. Using an evidence-based approach, the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs contains a comprehensive status review of Rhinoderma spp., including critical threat analyses, and proposes 39 prioritized conservation actions. Its goal is that by 2028, key information gaps on Rhinoderma spp. will be filled, the main threats to these species will be reduced, and financial, legal and societal support will have been achieved. The strategy is a multi-disciplinary, transnational endeavour aimed at ensuring the long-term viability of these unique frogs and their particular habitat.
The use of three-dimensional (3D) printing in surgery is expanding and there is a focus on comprehensively evaluating the clinical impact of this technology. However, although additional costs are one of the main limitations to its use, little is known about its economic impact. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the costs associated with its use and highlight the first quantitative data available.
A systematic literature review was conducted in the PubMed and Embase databases and in the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) at the University of York. Studies that reported an assessment of the costs associated with the use of 3D printing for surgical application and published between 2009 and 2019, in English or French, were included.
Nine studies were included in our review. Nine types of costs were identified, the three main ones being printing material costs (n = 6), staff costs (n = 3), and operating room costs (n = 3). The printing cost ranged from less than U.S. dollars (USD) 1 to USD 146 (in USD 2019 values) depending on the criteria used to calculate this cost. Three studies evaluated the potential savings generated by the use of 3D printing technology in surgery, based on operating time reduction.
This literature review highlights the lack of reliable economic data on 3D printing technology. Nevertheless, this review makes it possible to identify expenditures or items that should be considered in order to carry out more robust studies.
This article describes an intervention program to improve writing skills, intended to be a useful tool for everyday remedial work in primary school. The design was based on an initial review of the approaches most often used for writing intervention and identification of the main concerns for such intervention; namely, the use of direct and explicit instructions, the importance of feedback, recommended levels of intervention, the main content to consider, and use of motivating activities to get the student engaged or even to enjoy the intervention. All these considerations guided decision making about the appropriate features that would ensure an effective intervention in children with general and specific writing difficulties. The intervention program follows evidence-based practice strategies and may be useful for educational professionals in primary school, acknowledging that the program needs to be experimentally evaluated.