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Therapeutic connections enhance patient experience and outcomes after neurological injury or illness. While we have some understanding of the components necessary to optimise therapeutic connections, these have developed from western-centric ideals. This study sought to explore the perspectives of Māori brain injury survivors, and their whānau (wider family and community), to develop more culturally informed understandings of what matters most for Māori in the development and experience of therapeutic connection.
Design and Methods:
A bicultural approach underpinned by principles of Kaupapa Māori Research was used. Whānau views and experiences were gathered through wānanga (focus groups). These perspectives were analysed drawing on Māori methods of noho puku (self-reflection), whanaungatanga (relational linkage) and kaitiakitanga (guardianship).
Three wānanga were held with 16 people – 5 brain injury survivors and 11 whānau members. The phrase ‘therapeutic connection’ did not resonate; instead, people spoke of meaningful connections. For rehabilitation encounters to be meaningful, three layers of connection were acknowledged. The elemental layer features wairua (spirit) and hononga (connection) which both underpinned and surrounded interactions. The relational layer reflects the importance of whānau identity and collectivism, of being valued, known, and interactively spoken with. Finally, the experiential layer consists of relational aspects important within the experience: relationships of reciprocity that are mana-enhancing and grounded in trust. These layers are interwoven, and together serve as a framework for meaningful connections.
Meaningful connections in neurorehabilitation are underpinned by wairua and hononga; are multi-layered; are enabled through interactions with people, practice, process and place; are inclusive of whānau and resonate with Māori worldviews. The primacy of wairua and whānau within an interconnected view of health, challenges individualistic notions inherent in western health models and deepens existing understandings of meaningful connections in neurorehabilitation which can guide future rehabilitation research, teaching and practice.
Two introduced carnivores, the European red fox Vulpes vulpes and domestic cat Felis catus, have had extensive impacts on Australian biodiversity. In this study, we collate information on consumption of Australian birds by the fox, paralleling a recent study reporting on birds consumed by cats. We found records of consumption by foxes on 128 native bird species (18% of the non-vagrant bird fauna and 25% of those species within the fox’s range), a smaller tally than for cats (343 species, including 297 within the fox’s Australian range, a subset of that of the cat). Most (81%) bird species eaten by foxes are also eaten by cats, suggesting that predation impacts are compounded. As with consumption by cats, birds that nest or forage on the ground are most likely to be consumed by foxes. However, there is also some partitioning, with records of consumption by foxes but not cats for 25 bird species, indicating that impacts of the two predators may also be complementary. Bird species ≥3.4 kg were more likely to be eaten by foxes, and those <3.4 kg by cats. Our compilation provides an inventory and describes characteristics of Australian bird species known to be consumed by foxes, but we acknowledge that records of predation do not imply population-level impacts. Nonetheless, there is sufficient information from other studies to demonstrate that fox predation has significant impacts on the population viability of some Australian birds, especially larger birds, and those that nest or forage on the ground.
We examined whether preadmission history of depression is associated with less delirium/coma-free (DCF) days, worse 1-year depression severity and cognitive impairment.
Design and measurements:
A health proxy reported history of depression. Separate models examined the effect of preadmission history of depression on: (a) intensive care unit (ICU) course, measured as DCF days; (b) depression symptom severity at 3 and 12 months, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II); and (c) cognitive performance at 3 and 12 months, measured by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) global score.
Setting and participants:
Patients admitted to the medical/surgical ICU services were eligible.
Of 821 subjects eligible at enrollment, 261 (33%) had preadmission history of depression. After adjusting for covariates, preadmission history of depression was not associated with less DCF days (OR 0.78, 95% CI, 0.59–1.03 p = 0.077). A prior history of depression was associated with higher BDI-II scores at 3 and 12 months (3 months OR 2.15, 95% CI, 1.42–3.24 p = <0.001; 12 months OR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.24–2.87 p = 0.003). We did not observe an association between preadmission history of depression and cognitive performance at either 3 or 12 months (3 months beta coefficient −0.04, 95% CI, −2.70–2.62 p = 0.97; 12 months 1.5, 95% CI, −1.26–4.26 p = 0.28).
Patients with a depression history prior to ICU stay exhibit a greater severity of depressive symptoms in the year after hospitalization.
Background: Newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are at high risk for seizures, the majority of which have no clinical signs and therefore require continuous electroencephalographic (cEEG) monitoring for their detection. We sought to determine which neonates are at highest risk for seizures in order to optimize allocation of scarce cEEG resources. Methods: We identified term neonates diagnosed with HIE who underwent at least 24 hours of protocol-based cEEG monitoring between 2016 and 2019. We quantified seizure incidence, timing and burden, and correlated these with potential risk factors such as HIE severity, use of therapeutic hypothermia, preceding suspected clinical seizures, amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) background and patterns suspicious for seizures, and use of anti-seizure drugs. Results: cEEG monitoring was completed in 218 neonates with HIE, of whom 164 (75%) underwent therapeutic hypothermia. Preceding clinical/aEEG seizures occurred in 147 (67%), 99 (67%) of whom had been cooled but only 22 (10%) had cEEG-confirmed seizures. Characterization of seizure burden and correlation with potential risk factors is ongoing. Conclusions: Although seizures are commonly suspected in neonates with HIE, they are infrequently confirmed during cEEG monitoring, creating opportunities for more efficient risk-based allocation of cEEG resources.
To test the hypothesis that higher level of purpose in life is associated with lower likelihood of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older Brazilians.
As part of the Pathology, Alzheimer’s and Related Dementias Study (PARDoS), informants of 1,514 older deceased Brazilians underwent a uniform structured interview. The informant interview included demographic data, the Clinical Dementia Rating scale to diagnose dementia and MCI, the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule for depression, and a 6-item measure of purpose in life, a component of well-being.
Purpose scores ranged from 1.5 to 5.0 with higher values indicating higher levels of purpose. On the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, 940 persons (62.1%) had no cognitive impairment, 121 (8.0%) had MCI, and 453 (29.9%) had dementia. In logistic regression models adjusted for age at death, sex, education, and race, higher purpose was associated with lower likelihood of MCI (odds ratio = .58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .43, .79) and dementia (odds ratio = .49, 95% CI: .41, .59). Results were comparable after adjusting for depression (identified in 161 [10.6%]). Neither race nor education modified the association of purpose with cognitive diagnoses.
Higher purpose in life is associated with lower likelihood of MCI and dementia in older black and white Brazilians.
We consider patterns formed in a two-dimensional thin film on a planar substrate with a Derjaguin disjoining pressure and periodic wettability stripes. We rigorously clarify some of the results obtained numerically by Honisch et al. [Langmuir 31: 10618–10631, 2015] and embed them in the general theory of thin-film equations. For the case of constant wettability, we elucidate the change in the global structure of branches of steady-state solutions as the average film thickness and the surface tension are varied. Specifically we find, by using methods of local bifurcation theory and the continuation software package AUTO, both nucleation and metastable regimes. We discuss admissible forms of spatially non-homogeneous disjoining pressure, arguing for a form that differs from the one used by Honisch et al., and study the dependence of the steady-state solutions on the wettability contrast in that case.
The delivery of medical education has changed alongside the effects of COVID-19. As a result, the undergraduate psychiatry training for medical students at Guy’s King’s and St Thomas’ School of Medicine had to adapt rapidly. This poster portrays the journey in which the teaching sessions were developed and delivered throughout the first academic term of 2020-2021.
To deliver an interactive online teaching day that can provide students with the knowledge and understanding of common psychiatric disorders in the interface of other medical conditions.
A clinical skills teaching day was developed to deliver the sessions via the online video calling platform Zoom. Published articles regarding online medical education as well as guidelines from the Royal College of Psychiatry were used as a resource to develop the structure. Feedback of the teaching day was collected via an anonymous survey.
78 responses were collected in total from 4 teaching days. Overall satisfaction was high with a score of 86.5/100 in overall satisfaction. Themes for positive feedback included utilising actors in simulation (38% 30/78) and high interactivity within the teaching (31% 24/78). There were a number of students who found the whole day session online tiring (13% 10/78) and others felt the variation of scenarios were too limited (12% 9/78).
As lockdown has forced students to have less patient contact, they have suffered from the lack of learning opportunities. This teaching day showed the importance of organising high fidelity scenarios in order to try and fill the void that has been created due to COVID-19.
Assessing risk is an important core skill yet there is not a consensus as to how to teach it. Clinically, there has been a move away from using risk prediction tools in favour of clinical judgement.We describe an iterative process to develop high quality, online teaching around risk assessment for medical undergraduates.
To teach the clinical skill of risk assessment to enable medical students to evaluate and manage risk when encountering patients with mental health issues.
A half day tutorial was designed and refined in an iterative process using feedback from participants on this session and other concurrent teaching occurring in the department. Sessions were also reviewed by external medical educators to ensure quality and learning objectives were met.
The average rating from 62 students was 4.4/5. Students commented that the session was well organised and delivered. Following feedback, the use of actors was prioritised to simulate evolving clinical situations. Students placed a high value on this: “simulated patients were amazing! They were really interesting and I was able to practice the skills I learnt over placement”. Logistical changes e.g. more breaks, followed appreciation of the exhausting nature of the session and maintained student engagement. There was increased emphasis on promoting group interaction through functions like a ‘break-out room’.
This session may give educators confidence that they can take risks when teaching the skill of risk assessment. Students were receptive and meaningfully engaged with concepts such as clinical judgement and bio-psycho-social formulations as opposed to ‘tick box’ assessments.
Microscopic examination of blood smears remains the gold standard for laboratory inspection and diagnosis of malaria. Smear inspection is, however, time-consuming and dependent on trained microscopists with results varying in accuracy. We sought to develop an automated image analysis method to improve accuracy and standardization of smear inspection that retains capacity for expert confirmation and image archiving. Here, we present a machine learning method that achieves red blood cell (RBC) detection, differentiation between infected/uninfected cells, and parasite life stage categorization from unprocessed, heterogeneous smear images. Based on a pretrained Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks (R-CNN) model for RBC detection, our model performs accurately, with an average precision of 0.99 at an intersection-over-union threshold of 0.5. Application of a residual neural network-50 model to infected cells also performs accurately, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.98. Finally, combining our method with a regression model successfully recapitulates intraerythrocytic developmental cycle with accurate lifecycle stage categorization. Combined with a mobile-friendly web-based interface, called PlasmoCount, our method permits rapid navigation through and review of results for quality assurance. By standardizing assessment of Giemsa smears, our method markedly improves inspection reproducibility and presents a realistic route to both routine lab and future field-based automated malaria diagnosis.
Introduced mammalian predators are responsible for the decline and extinction of many native species, with rats (genus Rattus) being among the most widespread and damaging invaders worldwide. In a naturally fragmented landscape, we demonstrate the multi-year effectiveness of snap traps in the removal of Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans from lava-surrounded forest fragments ranging in size from <0.1 to >10 ha. Relative to other studies, we observed low levels of fragment recolonization. Larger rats were the first to be trapped, with the average size of trapped rats decreasing over time. Rat removal led to distinct shifts in the foraging height and location of mongooses and mice, emphasizing the need to focus control efforts on multiple invasive species at once. Furthermore, because of a specially designed trap casing, we observed low non-target capture rates, suggesting that on Hawai‘i and similar islands lacking native rodents the risk of killing non-target species in snap traps may be lower than the application of rodenticides, which have the potential to contaminate food webs. These efforts demonstrate that targeted snap-trapping is an effective removal method for invasive rats in fragmented habitats and that, where used, monitoring of recolonization should be included as part of a comprehensive biodiversity management strategy.
As part of the Pathology, Alzheimer’s and Related Dementias Study, we conducted uniform structured interviews with knowledgeable informants (72% children) of 1,493 older (age > 65) Brazilian decedents.
The interview included measures of social isolation (number of family and friends in at least monthly contact with decedent), emotional isolation (short form of UCLA Loneliness Scale), and major depression plus the informant portion of the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale to diagnose dementia and its precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
Decedents had a median social network size of 8.0 (interquartile range = 9.0) and a median loneliness score of 0.0 (interquartile range = 1.0). On the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, 947 persons had no cognitive impairment, 122 had MCI, and 424 had dementia. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, education, sex, and race, both smaller network size (odds ratio [OR] = 0.975; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.962, 0.989) and higher loneliness (OR = 1.145; 95% CI: 1.060, 1.237) were associated with higher likelihood of dementia. These associations persisted after controlling for depression (present in 10.4%) and did not vary by race. After controlling for depression, neither network size nor loneliness was related to MCI.
Social and emotional isolation are associated with higher likelihood of dementia in older black and white Brazilians.
This paper presents a feasibility study of in situ field measurements of unsaturated meltwater percolation flux within the vertical profile of a snowpack, using the self-potential (SP) method. On-site snowmelt column tests calibrated the SP measurements. The SP data measured electrical field strength with an electrode spacing of 20 cm, and coincident water saturation (Sw) measurements using time domain reflectometry allowed calculation of SP-modeled vertical percolation flux (qsp), expressed as Darcy velocity. The results reflected transient diurnal snowmelt dynamics, with peak flux lagging arrival of a saturation wetting front. Peak daily qsp was 60 to >300 mm d−1, whereas daily snowmelt was 20–50 mm w.e. Surface refreezing events appeared to cause upward flow, possibly representing water redistribution toward the freezing boundary. Calculated fluxes were comparable to actual fluxes, although average errors ranged from −15 to +46% compared to average of melt expected from surface energy-balance and ablation stake measurements. By advancing method development to measure unsaturated meltwater percolation flux in snowpacks this study creates opportunities to study fundamental snowmelt processes, may improve mathematical modeling and may supplement glacier mass-balance studies and studies of snowmelt interactions with avalanches, groundwater and surface water.
Healthcare personnel with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were interviewed to describe activities and practices in and outside the workplace. Among 2,625 healthcare personnel, workplace-related factors that may increase infection risk were more common among nursing-home personnel than hospital personnel, whereas selected factors outside the workplace were more common among hospital personnel.
A single spray application of a continuously active disinfectant on portable equipment resulted in significant reductions in aerobic colony counts over 7 days and in recovery of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci: 3 of 93 cultures (3%) versus 11 of 97 (11%) and 20 of 97 (21%) in quaternary ammonium disinfectant and untreated control groups, respectively.
The work of Ed Zigler spans decades of research all singularly dedicated to using science to improve the lives of children facing different challenges. The focus of this article is on one of Zigler's numerous lines of work: advocating for the practice of mental age (MA) matching in empirical research, wherein groups of individuals are matched on the basis of developmental level, rather than chronological age. While MA matching practices represented a paradigm shift that provided the seeds from which the developmental approach to developmental disability sprouted, it is not without its own limits. Here, we examine and test the underlying assumption of linearity inherent in MA matching using three commonly used IQ measures. Results provide practical constraints of using MA matching, a solution which we hope refines future clinical and empirical practices, furthering Zigler's legacy of continued commitment to compassionate, meaningful, and rigorous science in the service of children.
To investigate the timing and routes of contamination of the rooms of patients newly admitted to the hospital.
Observational cohort study and simulations of pathogen transfer.
A Veterans’ Affairs hospital.
Patients newly admitted to the hospital with no known carriage of healthcare-associated pathogens.
Interactions between the participants and personnel or portable equipment were observed, and cultures of high-touch surfaces, floors, bedding, and patients’ socks and skin were collected for up to 4 days. Cultures were processed for Clostridioides difﬁcile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Simulations were conducted with bacteriophage MS2 to assess plausibility of transfer from contaminated floors to high-touch surfaces and to assess the effectiveness of wearing slippers in reducing transfer.
Environmental cultures became positive for at least 1 pathogen in 10 (59%) of the 17 rooms, with cultures positive for MRSA, C. difficile, and VRE in the rooms of 10 (59%), 2 (12%), and 2 (12%) participants, respectively. For all 14 instances of pathogen detection, the initial site of recovery was the floor followed in a subset of patients by detection on sock bottoms, bedding, and high-touch surfaces. In simulations, wearing slippers over hospital socks dramatically reduced transfer of bacteriophage MS2 from the floor to hands and to high-touch surfaces.
Floors may be an underappreciated source of pathogen dissemination in healthcare facilities. Simple interventions such as having patients wear slippers could potentially reduce the risk for transfer of pathogens from floors to hands and high-touch surfaces.
Aggressive behavior in middle childhood can contribute to peer rejection, subsequently increasing risk for substance use in adolescence. However, the quality of peer relationships a child experiences can be associated with his or her genetic predisposition, a genotype–environment correlation (rGE). In addition, recent evidence indicates that psychosocial preventive interventions can buffer genetic predispositions for negative behavior. The current study examined associations between polygenic risk for aggression, aggressive behavior, and peer rejection from 8.5 to 10.5 years, and the subsequent influence of peer rejection on marijuana use in adolescence (n = 515; 256 control, 259 intervention). Associations were examined separately in control and intervention groups for children of families who participated in a randomized controlled trial of the family-based preventive intervention, the Family Check-Up . Using time-varying effect modeling (TVEM), polygenic risk for aggression was associated with peer rejection from approximately age 8.50 to 9.50 in the control group but no associations were present in the intervention group. Subsequent analyses showed peer rejection mediated the association between polygenic risk for aggression and adolescent marijuana use in the control group. The role of rGEs in middle childhood peer processes and implications for preventive intervention programs for adolescent substance use are discussed.
This is an epidemiological study of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in Veterans’ Affairs medical centers (VAMCs). In 2017, almost 75% of VAMCs had at least 1 CRE case. We observed substantial geographic variability, with more cases in urban, complex facilities. This supports the benefit of tailoring infection control strategies to facility characteristics.