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An investigation of a monochromatic point X-ray
source of photon energy ∼5 keV was carried out. The
source was set up using a laser produced Al plasma as a
cathode and a point-tip Ti anode. Optimum parameters of
the diode were determined from experimental measurements
of X-ray intensity dependence on laser pulse energy, applied
accelerating voltage, and distance between target (cathode)
and anode, using Nd:glass laser pulses (FWHM 30 ns) of
2 mJ to 4 J energy. Electron temperature characterization
of the target plasma was also performed from the XUV emission
spectrum (5–80 Å). Parameters of X radiation
in Ti K-shells are (1) spectral brightness of
(2) spatial size ∼300 microns, and (3) X-ray pulse
duration less than 20 ns.
The present review is of the experimental investigations on laser-plasma interaction being carried out in past years at IAE. Experiments were conducted on the “Mishen” facility. The laser system of Mishen consists of two channels with output beam parameters as follows: the main beam—output energy 100–200 J (λ = 1.054 μm) in 3-ns pulse, divergence ∼2 × 10-4 rad, contrast ratio ∼106, power density at the target surface ∼1013–1014 W/cm2; the diagnostic beam–output energy 10–20 J (λ = 1.054 μm) and 5–10 J (λ = 0.53 μm) in 0.3-ns pulse, divergence ∼10-4 rad, power density 1013 - 1014 W/cm2. Our aim in this experiment is to study the different aspects of the ICF processes in flat geometry. The main issues of our studies are hydrodynamic aspects, including acceleration efficiency, high-velocity impact in cascade targets, hydrostability, and X-ray physicsconversion efficiency, heat transfer, and X-ray-driven targets.
X-ray emission from planar targets irradiated by 1.054-μm laser pulses was observed with temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution. The main purpose of these measurements was the investigation of energy transfer in multilayer targets and X-ray conversion efficiency. A mass ablation rate was determined from temporal analysis of multicharged ion line emission and a key role of corona X-ray emission in accelerated material preheating was established.
A program is under way to develop methods and instrumentation based on charge-coupled device (CCD) sensors for hot plasma diagnostics. We have developed a new X-ray spectrometer in which a freestanding X-ray transmission grating is coupled to a CCD linear array detector with electronic digitized readout replacing film and its wet processing. This instrument measures time-integrated pulsed X-ray spectra with moderate spectral resolution (δλ ≤ 0.6 nm) over a broad spectral range (0.3–2 keV) with high sensitivity, linearity, and large dynamic range. The performance of the device was tested using laser plasma as the X-ray source.
A method of probing beam refraction is suggested for the investigation of laserproduced plasma with high density gradients. The refraction angle α of a probing ray as a function of ray impact parameter p is used as input data. Different experimental realizations of α(p) measurements are considered. Results from laser produced plasma interferograms processed with phase shift and refractometry methods are compared.
Scattered emission from the laser plasma created in shell target heating experiments using the Delfin-1 laser has been studied. It is shown that the ω0 spherical harmonics can be used to determine both the plasma temperature in the nc/4 region and also the plasma flow through this region.
We have developed a new soft x-ray spectrometer covering the photon energy range 50–500 eV. It employs a free-standing transmission grating coupled to a microchannelplate detector. The performance of the device was tested by using radiation from a synchrotron with a continuous spectrum. The detector shows a rather flat response over most of the useful spectral range, with an abrupt decrease in the sensitivity at the short-wavelength end. Its simplicity of operation makes the device attractive for such applications as the study of soft x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas.
A new method of experimental measurement of the imploded mass of laser-imploded shell targets is proposed. This method is based on simultaneous measurements of the velocity spectrum of the neutral atom flux emitted from the imploded part of the target, and the total energy carried by them. A semiconductor diode with a shallowly located p – n junction was used as the low energy neutral particle detector. By means of the time of flight method neutral atom fluxes with velocities υ ∼ (0·6 − 1·8) × 107cm/s were registered in experiments carried out on the 6-beam laser system “Delfin”.
This paper presents the results of laser-produced plasma investigations at an intensity of 1014W/cm2. Shadowgraphy, interferometry and second harmonic emission measurements were done to evaluate the main hydrodynamic parameters of the plasma.
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