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Concerns persist regarding possible false-negative results that may compromise COVID-19 containment. Although obtaining a true false-negative rate is infeasible, using real-life observations, the data suggest a possible false-negative rate of ˜2.3%. Use of a sensitive, amplified RNA platform should reassure healthcare systems.
A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 12 independent loci significantly associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Polygenic risk scores (PRS), derived from the GWAS, can be used to assess genetic overlap between ADHD and other traits. Using ADHD samples from several international sites, we derived PRS for ADHD from the recent GWAS to test whether genetic variants that contribute to ADHD also influence two cognitive functions that show strong association with ADHD: attention regulation and response inhibition, captured by reaction time variability (RTV) and commission errors (CE).
The discovery GWAS included 19 099 ADHD cases and 34 194 control participants. The combined target sample included 845 people with ADHD (age: 8–40 years). RTV and CE were available from reaction time and response inhibition tasks. ADHD PRS were calculated from the GWAS using a leave-one-study-out approach. Regression analyses were run to investigate whether ADHD PRS were associated with CE and RTV. Results across sites were combined via random effect meta-analyses.
When combining the studies in meta-analyses, results were significant for RTV (R2 = 0.011, β = 0.088, p = 0.02) but not for CE (R2 = 0.011, β = 0.013, p = 0.732). No significant association was found between ADHD PRS and RTV or CE in any sample individually (p > 0.10).
We detected a significant association between PRS for ADHD and RTV (but not CE) in individuals with ADHD, suggesting that common genetic risk variants for ADHD influence attention regulation.
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy related inflammatory process (CAA-ri), a rare condition caused by an inflammatory reaction occurring within essential cerebral blood vessels against beta-amyloid deposits, leads to subclinical cognitive decline. Often misdiagnosed as dementia, this process can be treated through aggressive immunosuppression, thereby reversing much of the cognitive impairment.
We report a 69 year old female who came to the clinic for a second opinion and had received a previous diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Dementia (AD) from an outside hospital two years prior. She presented with her husband who provided some key aspects of the history. The husband reported two years of worsening of memory, while the patient denied her symptoms. Per husband and patient, she was able to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), including bathing, dressing and toileting, but had difficulties with many instrumental ADLs (IADLs). The clinical course was somewhat fluctuating with progressive cognitive symptoms and significant word-finding difficulties. Patient had been started on Donepezil 5 mg daily by her primary provider.
On examination, the patient did exhibit significant word-finding difficulties and scored 12/30 on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), indicating moderate cognitive impairment. The Patient was as well confused and disoriented to time and place. Neurological examination was otherwise unremarkable. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies were ordered and showed patchy and diffuse T2/FLAIR hyper intensities and particularly concentrated in the posterior cerebral artery and inferior division of the middle cerebral artery. These findings were consistent with cerebral amyloid angiopathy related inflammation (CAA-ri). Besides susceptibility weighted image (SWI) was showing multiple widely distributed microhemorrhages typical for CAA.
To address the acute inflammatory reaction the patient was hospitalized and received high dose, 3 day course of intravenous steroids, followed by an oral steroid taper. The treatment had to be monitored due to an unrelated hypertensive emergency and WPW syndrome (both newly diagnosed and treated emergently) thus the Patient was hospitalized for a 3 days and discharged on oral steroids tapper in improved condition.
Additionally, imaging showed that the patient’s hippocampal volumes were within normal range so this particular imaging biomarker didn’t support the diagnosis of AD. CSF biomarkers analysis didn’t support the diagnosis of AD either since had p-Tau levels were found to be within normal limits. Patient was found to be homozygous for the APOE e4 gene. Follow-up evaluation (including a repeat MRI study) was performed 2 months later showed clinical recovery and near complete resolution of diffuse hyperintensities, suggesting inflammation had resolved. Both the patient and the husband reported significant improvement in orientation and other aspects of cognition including working memory. The Patient scored 26/30 on MoCA.
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) has been commonly associated with brain hemorrhages in the elderly, but the inflammatory subtype CAA-I occur much less frequently and may be often misdiagnosed as a cancerous process (Ronsin et al. 2016). In a recent systematic review by Caldas A et al. 2015, of the 155 patients with documented CAA-I, almost half displayed some form of cognitive impairment and 86% received corticosteroids. Nearly half of the cases improved following treatment.
We present a case of a patient previously diagnosed with AD, upon further investigation, likely CAA-I, treated aggressively with intravenous steroids to good effect. Although rare, CAA-I is a reversible disorder that may be masked by a dementia or/and delirious process and should be considered in patients showing relatively rapid and fluctuating cognitive decline.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Access to pediatric subspecialty care varies by sociodemographic factors. Providers for gender diverse youth (GDY) are rare, and GDY face health disparities, stigma, and discrimination. We examined the association between GDY access to medical and mental health care and rurality, race, parental education, and other GDY-specific factors. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We surveyed parents of GDY (<18 years old) across the United States. Participants were recruited through online communities and listserves specific to parents of GDY. We determined associations between access to gender-specific medical or mental health providers and rurality, race, parental education, as well as other GDY-specific factors including age, time since telling their parent their gender identity, parent-adolescent communication, parent stress, and gender identity using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. We calculated adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We surveyed 166 parents and caregivers from 31 states. The majority (73.2%) identified as white, 66.5% had earned a bachelor’s degree or higher, and 7.6% lived in a zip code designated rural by the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy. We found no evidence of association between reported GDY access to medical or mental health care and race, parental education, or rurality. We did find a significant univariate association between access to mental health care and feminine (either female or transfeminine/transfemale) gender identity (p = 0.033, OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.06 – 6.36). After controlling for parent-adolescent communication in a backwards elimination logistic regression model, it was no longer significant (p = 0.137, OR 2.05, 95% CI 0.80 – 5.25). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Despite rurality, race, and parental education impacting access to pediatric subspecialty care, we failed to find these associations among GDY accessing gender care. There is a need to better understand structural and societal barriers to care for this population including the impact of stigma and discrimination.
Coexistence of tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has important clinical and scientific implications. Existing data on the co-occurrence of tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome (TS), and ADHD are largely derived from small-scale studies in selected samples and therefore heterogeneous. The Nordbaden project captures the complete outpatient claims data of more than 2.2 million persons, representing 82% of the regional population in 2003. Based upon the number of diagnosed cases of tic disorders, TS, and ADHD, we determined 12-months administrative prevalence rates as well as rates of co-occurrence. Both tic disorders and ADHD were diagnosed most often in the age group 7–12 years (any tic disorder: 0.8%; ADHD: 5.0%). With increasing age, the administrative prevalence difference in favor of males disappeared, with tic disorders being somewhat more frequently reported in females than males in the age groups above 30 years. The highest rate of ADHD co-occurring with tic disorders was found in adolescents (age 13–18 years, 15.1%). Tic disorders were observed in 2.3% of patients with ADHD. Administrative prevalence rates of tic disorders and TS were substantially lower compared to rates found in community-based epidemiological studies, suggesting that a large number of cases remain undetected and untreated under present conditions of routine outpatient care.
Sleep problems in children with common psychiatric disorders present a considerable challenge for clinicians in developing effective diagnosis and treatment strategies. Whilst sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) are very frequent in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which can deviate sleep architecture, their co-existence in Tic disorder (TD) and ADHD/TD co-morbidity is less well understood.
To investigate the frequency of SDB and PLMS across children with ADHD, TD and ADHD/TD co-morbidity compared with healthy peers.
We asked whether and how the frequency of SDB and PLMS relates to sleep architecture.
Twenty-four children with ADHD, 21 with TD, 21 with ADHD/TD co-morbidity and 22 healthy controls underwent a two-night polysomnography supplemented by monitoring of apnea-hypopnea (AH) and PLMS events per hour of total sleep time.
Compared with controls, only ADHD children displayed a significantly higher AH and PLMS indices. Yet correlation analyses showed significant and negative association between AH and PLMS indices and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep amount in all, the ADHD, the TD (Fig. 1), the co-morbid, and the control (Fig. 2) groups. No such associations with the other sleep stages were found for all the groups.
Our preliminary results suggest that
(1) presence of co-existing sleep-related disorders may partially explain the contradicting sleep results found so far in children with ADHD,
(2) high frequency of SDB and PLMS could be associated with REM sleep reduction regardless of psychopathology.
This study used data from 12 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and United States; N = 1,315) to investigate bidirectional associations between parental warmth and control, and child externalizing and internalizing behaviors. In addition, the extent to which these associations held across mothers and fathers and across cultures with differing normative levels of parent warmth and control were examined. Mothers, fathers, and children completed measures when children were ages 8 to 13. Multiple-group autoregressive cross-lagged structural equation models revealed that evocative child-driven effects of externalizing and internalizing behavior on warmth and control are ubiquitous across development, cultures, mothers, and fathers. Results also reveal that parenting effects on child externalizing and internalizing behaviors, though rarer than child effects, extend into adolescence when examined separately in mothers and fathers. Father-based parent effects were more frequent than mother effects. Most parent- and child-driven effects appear to emerge consistently across cultures. The rare culture-specific parenting effects suggested that occasionally the effects of parenting behaviors that run counter to cultural norms may be delayed in rendering their protective effect against deleterious child outcomes.
The Batn el-Hagar in Sudan has traditionally been characterised as sparsely occupied during the Middle Kingdom Period, with most activity limited to the Egyptian fortresses along the Second Cataract. A new survey programme undertaken by the Uronarti Regional Archaeological Project offers evidence for a more richly occupied landscape.
The current study examined whether social status and social integration, two related but distinct indicators of an adolescent's standing within a peer network, mediate the association between risky symptoms (depressive symptoms and deviant behavior) and substance use across adolescence. The sample of 6,776 adolescents participated in up to seven waves of data collection spanning 6th to 12th grades. Scores indexing social status and integration were derived from a social network analysis of six schools and subsequent psychometric modeling. Results of latent growth models showed that social integration and status mediated the relation between risky symptoms and substance use and that risky symptoms mediated the relation between social standing and substance use during the high school transition. Before this transition, pathways involving deviant behavior led to high social integration and status and in turn to substance use. After this transition, both deviant behavior and depressive symptoms led to low social integration and status and in turn greater substance use. These findings suggest that the high school transition is a risky time for substance use related to the interplay of increases in depressive symptoms and deviant behavior on the one hand and decreases in social status and integration on the other.
As children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) usually show psychopathological signs beyond their core symptoms (e.g. elevated scores of the dysregulation profile (DP) in 30–40%), treatments with a broader approach to self-regulation skills may be supportive. Neurofeedback (NF) may reflect such an option. Aim of the present analysis was to compare the effects of slow cortical potential (SCP) NF and θ/β NF on the DP using data from a previous trial.
Thirty children with ADHD (aged 8–12 years) and a DP score in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-DP) ⩾ 3 were included. NF treatment consisted of one block of SCP NF and one block of θ/β NF (18 units per block) allowing an intraindividual comparison. Effects of the NF protocols were also contrasted to a control group (n = 18) that completed an attention skills training (between-group analysis).
Regarding the SDQ-DP, SCP NF was superior to θ/β NF and the control condition. Effects of SCP NF and θ/β NF on ADHD symptom severity were not significantly different. The SDQ-DP score did not correlate with EEG-related measures previously found to be predictors for SCP NF on ADHD symptoms.
SCP NF may reflect a more general approach to improve cognitive, emotional and behavioral self-regulation skills. If confirmed in a larger sample, the SDQ-DP score could be used as an indication criterion and contribute to the individualization of NF in ADHD. Overall, the differential effect provides further evidence for the specificity of NF effects.
While the importance of political appointments is a matter of consensus, theorists and empiricists generally focus on different considerations, such as ideology and confirmation duration, respectively. More recently, there have been efforts to integrate empirical and theoretical scholarship but, to date, no empirical analysis assesses theoretical expectations about the relationship between temporal concerns and nominee ideologies. We fill this gap by examining theoretical predictions and related expectations about how the passage of time affects the President’s choices of nominees. We find that executives are disadvantaged as days pass and Presidents propose nominees with whom they are less ideologically compatible over time.
We aimed to assess the feasibility of a simple new fifteen-item FFQ as a tool for screening risk of poor dietary patterns in a healthy middle-aged population and to investigate how the results of the FFQ correlated with cardiovascular risk factors and socio-economic factors.
A randomized population-based cross-sectional study. Metabolic measurements for cardiovascular risk factors and information about lifestyle were collected. A fifteen-item FFQ was created to obtain information about dietary patterns. From the FFQ, a healthy eating index was created with three dietary groups: good, average and poor. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors.
Men and women aged 50 years and living in Gothenburg, Sweden.
In total, 521 middle-aged adults (257 men, 264 women) were examined. With good dietary pattern as the reference, there was a gradient association of having obesity, hypertension and high serum TAG in those with average and poor dietary patterns. After adjustment for education and lifestyle factors, individuals with a poor dietary pattern still had significantly higher risk (OR; 95 % CI) of obesity (2·33; 1·10, 4·94), hypertension (2·73; 1·44, 5·20) and high serum TAG (2·62; 1·33, 5·14) compared with those with a good dietary pattern.
Baseline data collected by a short FFQ can predict cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged Swedish men and women. The FFQ could be a useful tool in health-care settings, when screening for risk of poor dietary patterns.
Since 1990, polarization hindered changing environmental policy statutorily. Yet, in mid-2016 the Lautenberg Act regulating toxics - chemicals employed in commerce - was passed, winning business and environmental support. What might explain this? Has the Trump administration undercut the law's effects? Does the Act's passage portend more progressive actions? We show that the Act was a function of the status quo changing due to regulatory efforts abroad and in the United States, and from outside pressures on business. These influences impacted implementation, with the Trump administration not targeting toxics regulation analogous to other programs. Further, the processes we observe for toxics may not be unique.
Severe mood dysregulation is common in childhood and can be highly impairing. The Dysregulation Profile (DP) can be considered as a broader phenotype of emotional dysregulation, including affect, cognition and behaviour. Since mood dysregulation may persist, but differently in boys and girls, the gender associated course needs to be considered longitudinally to gain a better insight in order to support the children more adequately. This study is focusing on gender associated subgroup trajectories of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Dysregulation Profile (SDQ-DP) in middle childhood (9–13 years of age) and includes the potential impact of clinical and psychosocial characteristics.
The data set was available from the BELLA study on mental health and well-being in children and adolescents, which is the mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). A representative epidemiological sample of 564 children living in Germany was examined at three assessment points over 2 years (data collection 2003–2006). The SDQ-DP of children aged 9–13 years was evaluated using Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA).
For both genders three trajectories with low (girls 67.0% and boys 59.5%), moderate (girls 28.0% and boys 31.7%) and high SDQ-DP (girls 5.0% and boys 8.8%) scores were detected. The courses of low and moderate subgroups were stable, while in the high SDQ-DP subgroup boys showed a decreasing and girls an increasing trend in symptom severity on a descriptive level. The results of the multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed a significant influence of mainly externalising but also internalising problems both increasing the risk of moderate and high SDQ-DP in both genders. Good quality of life was a protective factor for the SDQ-DP course in all subgroups.
In addition to the known clinical and scientific value of the SDQ-DP, three distinguishable trajectories of SDQ-DP in boys and girls could be found. High externalising problems at the beginning of the trajectory were associated with an undesirable course of SDQ-DP. These findings might be helpful for better psychoeducation, counselling and monitoring in clinical cases and public health.