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In light of important political events that go beyond the nation state (e.g., migration, climate change, and the coronavirus pandemic), domestic politicians are increasingly pressured to scrutinize and speak out on European policy-making. This creates a potential trade-off between allocating effort to domestic and supranational affairs, respectively. We examine how citizens perceive legislator involvement in European Union (EU) politics with a pre-registered conjoint experiment in Germany. Our results show that Members of Parliament (MPs) are not disadvantaged when allocating effort to European affairs as compared to local and national affairs. In addition, voters tend to prefer MPs who engage in EU policy reform over those who do not. As demand for legislator involvement in European politics is on the rise, we provide empirical evidence that MPs can fulfill this demand without being disadvantaged by the electorate.
Ectopic calcification or pathological biomineralization correlates with morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Aortas with atherosclerotic lesions and biomineralization were selected for the study. Thirty samples of mineralized abdominal aortas (group M) were examined by histology. Depending on the calcifications size, samples were separated into group M1 (macroscopic calcifications) and M2 (microscopic calcifications). Each group consists of 15 samples. Calcification 2 mm or less were considered as microscopic, >2 mm—macroscopic. Thirty samples of aortic tissue without biomineralization (group C) were used as a control group. Aortic tissue was examined by macroscopic description, histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of IHC showed the involvement of OPN in the formation and development of pathological biomineralization, but the obvious role of OPN in the differentiation of macro- and microcalcifications of atherosclerotic aorta was not revealed. SEM with X-ray microanalysis confirmed that the biomineral part of the aortic samples of the M1 group consisted mainly of apatites, which correspond to previous studies. The Ca/P ratio was less in the M2 group than in the M1 group. It means that microcalcifications can be formed by more defective (immature) hydroxyapatite.
Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) capture genetic vulnerability to psychiatric conditions. However, PRSs are often associated with multiple mental health problems in children, complicating their use in research and clinical practice. The current study is the first to systematically test which PRSs associate broadly with all forms of childhood psychopathology, and which PRSs are more specific to one or a handful of forms of psychopathology.
The sample consisted of 4717 unrelated children (mean age = 9.92, s.d. = 0.62; 47.1% female; all European ancestry). Psychopathology was conceptualized hierarchically as empirically derived general factor (p-factor) and five specific factors: externalizing, internalizing, neurodevelopmental, somatoform, and detachment. Partial correlations explored associations between psychopathology factors and 22 psychopathology-related PRSs. Regressions tested which level of the psychopathology hierarchy was most strongly associated with each PRS.
Thirteen PRSs were significantly associated with the general factor, most prominently Chronic Multisite Pain-PRS (r = 0.098), ADHD-PRS (r = 0.079), and Depression-PRS (r = 0.078). After adjusting for the general factor, Depression-PRS, Neuroticism-PRS, PTSD-PRS, Insomnia-PRS, Chronic Back Pain-PRS, and Autism-PRS were not associated with lower order factors. Conversely, several externalizing PRSs, including Adventurousness-PRS and Disinhibition-PRS, remained associated with the externalizing factor (|r| = 0.040–0.058). The ADHD-PRS remained uniquely associated with the neurodevelopmental factor (r = 062).
PRSs developed to predict vulnerability to emotional difficulties and chronic pain generally captured genetic risk for all forms of childhood psychopathology. PRSs developed to predict vulnerability to externalizing difficulties, e.g. disinhibition, tended to be more specific in predicting behavioral problems. The results may inform translation of existing PRSs to pediatric research and future clinical practice.
Post-Intensive Care Syndrome (PICS) is a physical, cognitive, emotional and functional condition resulting from prolonged stays in ICU (Intensive Care Unit). In pathologies with clinical characteristics similar to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, most patients showed cognitive deficits after discharge from ICU. Further studies are needed to explore global cognitive impairment among PICS patients after COVID-19 infection.
To analyse the global cognitive functioning in patients with PICS after COVID-19 infection in a Functional Rehabilitation Unit in Madrid (Spain) using the Spanish version of the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-S).
This study was conducted in the Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja, in Madrid (Spain). A sample of 17 PICS adult patients was included, with age ranging from 56 to 74 years old (mean = 68.35 years; 13 males). Patients were assessed around three weeks after referral from their reference hospital. The total score of the SCIP-S was used as outcome. Descriptive analyses were conducted (mean and standard deviation) on standardized scores (z) based on age-adjusted general population norms. Significant impairment was set at z < -1.5.
Mean total z-score on SCIP-S was -1.08 (S.D. = .82) from the total sample, with 52.9% of cases with significant impairment (mean = -1.74; S.D. = .21).
These preliminary results show the probable presence of mild-moderate global cognitive impairment in a relevant proportion of patients after COVID-19 infection. Longitudinal studies, with larger samples, are needed where the premorbid cognitive level is considered.
Suicidal behavior has a great impact on world public health. The literature describes the possible existence of an association between neurobiological, clinical and cognitive factors in suicidal behavior.
To determine the possible relationship between clinical variables (history of abuse/maltreatment in childhood), psychopathology (impulsivity traits) and cognitive (decision-making) with a history of suicide attempt and/or current suicidal idea in patients with major depressive disorder.
Cross-sectional study in a sample of adult patients with major depressive disorder in which two types of comparisons are made. In the first case, two groups were compared based on the presence or absence of history of suicide attempt. In the second case, two groups were compared based on the presence or absence of suicidal ideation in the same sample of patients. Finally, sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables were evaluated in that population sample.
When the joint influence of sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive characteristics are present, it can be said that being single/divorced/separated, a history of sexual abuse in childhood and an alteration in decision-making, specifically a lower number of choices of deck D in the IGT test, are associated with a higher probability of a personal history of suicide attempt. While a higher score on the Barrat impulsivity scale is associated with a greater probability of presenting current suicidal ideation once the influence of sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables has been taken into account.
Different sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive factors are associated with the presence of a history of suicide attempt and/or current suicidal ideation.
Existence of non-negative weak solutions is shown for a full curvature thin-film model of a liquid thin film flowing down a vertical fibre. The proof is based on the application of a priori estimates derived for energy-entropy functionals. Long-time behaviour of these weak solutions is analysed and, under some additional constraints for the model parameters and initial values, convergence towards a travelling wave solution is obtained. Numerical studies of energy minimisers and travelling waves are presented to illustrate analytical results.
In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consenus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology, (ACC) and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate follow-up in pediatric patients.
Machinery and plant engineering in Germany is characterized by small and medium-sized enterprises. The so-called backbone of German industry is in transition towards Industry 4.0, with systems becoming more complex and the development task becoming an interdisciplinary task. Systems Engineering is a proven approach to realize these systems. Projects with SE approaches were accompanied and potentials of SE were structured. In this paper, we discuss the need for action for the company-wide introduction and present a solution concept.
Digitalization and sustainability are major challenges for today's manufacturing industry. While digitalization is characterized by the incorporation of digital technologies in the products and services as well as the value creation architectures, sustainability requires them to balance economic, environmental and social issues. In both areas, especially Product Service Systems (PSS) are constantly gaining importance. This results in so called smart PSS that integrate digital technologies as well as sustainable PSS which aim at a positive impact on sustainability. Both two concepts cannot be clearly delimited since smart PSS might be designed for sustainability as well and sustainable PSS might be used with digital technologies. This paper aims to investigate the interrelations. To that, digitalization patterns of products and services are evaluated regarding their sustainable impact. The evaluation is conducted by a survey in research and industry. Furthermore, the design of the underlying value creation architecture is investigated. Here, a methodology is proposed enabling companies to optimize their value creation architecture.
As digitization progresses, the integration of information and communication technologies in technical systems is constantly increasing. Fascinating value potentials are emerging (e.g. autonomous driving), but also challenges in the system development. The constantly increasing product complexity and degree of networking require a systemic development, which is fulfilled by established approaches of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). To ensure the reliability of tomorrow's systems, an integrative and early consideration of security and safety is additionally required. In order to show the possibility and consequences of failures and attacks, the paper develops a modeling language that links established and partly isolated security and safety approaches within a consistent metamodel. The developer is enabled to synthesize system architectures transparently on an interdisciplinary level and to analyze attack and failure propagation integratively. The approach uncovers synergetic and especially contrasting goals and effects of architectural designs in terms of safety and security in order to make adequate architectural decisions based on trade-off analyses.
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are able the collect huge amounts of data about themselves, their users, and their environment during their usage phase. By feeding these usage data back into product planning, manufacturers can optimize their engineering and decision-making processes. Despite promising potentials, most manufacturers still do not analyze usage data within product planning. Also, research on usage data-driven product planning is scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the main concepts, advantages, success factors and challenges of usage data-driven product planning. To answer the corresponding research questions, a comprehensive systematic literature review is conducted. From its results, a detailed description of usage data-driven product planning consisting of six main concepts is derived. Furthermore, taxonomies for the advantages, success factors and challenges of usage data-driven product planning are presented. The six main concepts and the three taxonomies allow for a deeper understanding of the topic while highlighting necessary future actions and research needs.
We investigate a theoretical framework for modelling fluid turbulence based on the formalism of exact coherent structures (ECSs). Although highly promising, existing evidence for the role of ECSs in turbulent flows is largely circumstantial and comes primarily from idealized numerical simulations. In particular, it remains unclear whether three-dimensional turbulent flows in experiment shadow any ECSs. In order to conclusively answer this question, a hierarchy of ECSs should be computed on a domain and with boundary conditions exactly matching experiment. The present study makes the first step in this direction by investigating a small-aspect-ratio Taylor–Couette flow with naturally periodic boundary conditions in the azimuthal direction. We describe the structure of the chaotic set underlying turbulent flow driven by counter-rotating cylinders and present direct numerical evidence for shadowing of a collection of unstable relative periodic orbits and a travelling wave, setting the stage for further experimental tests of the framework.