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Ovine ovarian fragments (3 × 3 × 1 mm) were fixed in neutral buffered formalin (NBF), Carnoy’s solution (CAR), Davidson’s solution (DAV), or paraformaldehyde (PFA) for 12 h or 24 h. After this fixation time, each fragment was prepared for histological analysis. Although fixative and fixation period did not affect follicular and stromal cells density, the percentages of morphologically normal primordial and primary follicles was affected by the fixative type and period of fixation. Paraformaldehyde was not indicated as a fixative for ovarian fragments. Formalin was a suitable fixative only when the period of fixation was 12 h, while Carnoy was efficient after a fixation period of 24 h. In conclusion, the most indicated fixative for the morphological evaluation of ovarian preantral follicles was DAV, regardless of the fixation period, that is 12 or 24 h.
Selective logging has been widely employed as a management practice in tropical forests due to its reduced impact on biodiversity. However, by altering microclimatic conditions, logging could affect soil fauna responsible for nutrient cycling and the long-term dynamic of the forest. We investigated how selective logging affected termite species richness, composition, and the distribution of species in trophic groups, as well as the natural response of termites to gradients of soil conditions. Termites and edaphic variables were sampled in 32 permanent plots in southern Amazonia. Plots were subject to selective logging for 10–31 years before termite sampling. Time post-management was associated with changes in termite species composition, and wood-feeding termites were more abundant in recently logged areas. Nevertheless, most of the variation in termite species richness and composition can be attributed to the natural variation in soil clay content. Moreover, soil-dweller species, a vulnerable group strongly linked to soil decomposition, were present in all plots. These results suggest that the impact of selective logging on termite communities might be milder compared with other types of disturbance. It is likely that the decomposition process performed by termites, and consequently long-term ecosystem functioning, is preserved under selective logging.
Maternal exercise has shown beneficial effects on mother and child. Literature confirm progeny’s cognition improvement, and upregulation in neurotrophins, antioxidant network, and DNA repair system. Considering that there is a lack of information demonstrating the impact of maternal exercise on offspring’s skeletal muscle, we aimed to investigate the mitochondrial and redox effects elicited by maternal swimming. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control sedentary, free swimming, and swimming with overload (2% of the body weight). Exercised groups were submitted weekly to five swimming sessions (30 min/day), starting 1 week prior to the mating and lasting to the delivery. Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle from 60-day-old offspring were analyzed. Our results clearly showed a sex-dependent effect. Male soleus showed increased mitochondrial functionality in the overload group. Female muscle from the overload group adapted deeply. Considering the redox status, the female offspring delivered to overload exercised dams presented reduced oxidants levels and protein damage, allied to downregulated antioxidant defenses. We also observed an increase in the mitochondrial function in the gastrocnemius muscle of the female offspring born from overload exercised dams. Soleus from female delivered to the overload exercise group presented reduced mitochondrial activity, as well as reduced reactive species, protein carbonyls, and antioxidant network, when compared to the male. In conclusion, maternal exercise altered the redox status and mitochondrial function in the offspring’s skeletal muscle in a sex-dependent way. The clinical implication was not investigated; however, the sexual dimorphism in response to maternal exercise might impact exercise resilience in adulthood.
This paper concerns with the development of three nonmotorized individual lower limb joints rehabilitation mechanisms based on a four-bar linkage, and mechanical movement transmission from the motion of the patient’s upper limb. Initially, mathematical and computational models are built based on the desired angular motions for the hip, knee, and ankle. A prototype for the knee mechanism was constructed for initial experimental tests. The first test with wooden mannequin show that this prototype is lightweight, has an output movement compatible with the amplitudes, is easy to build and operate, being thus ready for clinical tests with healthy and impaired subjects.
The purpose of this chapter is to set the stage for the book and for the upcoming chapters. We first overview classical information-theoretic problems and solutions. We then discuss emerging applications of information-theoretic methods in various data-science problems and, where applicable, refer the reader to related chapters in the book. Throughout this chapter, we highlight the perspectives, tools, and methods that play important roles in classic information-theoretic paradigms and in emerging areas of data science. Table 1.1 provides a summary of the different topics covered in this chapter and highlights the different chapters that can be read as a follow-up to these topics.
Lipids are among the organic substances that can work as biosignatures, indicating life in an environment. We present an experimental investigation concerning analysis of lipids from a microbial source deposited on the Mars Global Simulant (MGS-1) regolith by geomatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (GALDI-MS). Our results indicate that lipids from intact microbial cells of a black yeast strain can be detected in these mimetic samples of Martian soil. These lipid molecules are predominantly associated with the occurrence of adducts in the GALDI-MS spectra. The results can be helpful in the planning of future planetary missions.
Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major barrier to fruit production and exportation. In Brazil, the native parasitoid Aganaspis pelleranoi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) and the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) stand out as biological control agents. Knowledge of the factors that affect interactions among parasitoids, A. fraterculus, and host fruits may enhance the use of these agents in biological control programmes. This study evaluated the chemotaxis and parasitism of A. pelleranoi and D. longicaudata females reared on A. fraterculus larvae and kept on an artificial diet, red guava (Psidium guajava) or apple (Malus domestica). Females of both parasitoid species that emerged from larvae raised on artificial diet, guava or apple, were tested to Y olfactometer choice tests. In the parasitism tests, both parasitoid species were made to choose between A. fraterculus larvae brushed with water, apple pulp or guava pulp. D. longicaudata females from artificial diet (control) did not distinguish between fruit odours; however, females of D. longicaudata from larvae kept in apple or guava directed to the odours of their original fruit. The greatest parasitism for D. longicaudata occurred in the units that contained the pulp in which the larvae grew. A. pelleranoi from artificial diet preferred guava odours, including the females kept in apple. Similar results were observed in the parasitism bioassays. Our results found that A. fraterculus larval feeding influenced search behaviour and parasitism of D. longicaudata, whereas A. pelleranoi rearing experience did not affect its host choices.
Nicotine is the main psychoactive substance present in cigarette smoke that is transferred to the baby by breast milk. In rats, maternal nicotine exposure during breastfeeding induces obesogenesis and hormone dysfunctions in adult male offspring. As glucocorticoid (GC), insulin, and vitamin D change both adipogenesis and lipogenesis processes, we assessed parameters related to metabolism and action of these hormones in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues (VAT and SAT) of adult male and female rats in a model of neonatal nicotine exposure. At postnatal (PN) day 2, dams were kept with six pups (three per sex) and divided into nicotine and control groups for implantation of osmotic minipumps that released 6 mg/kg nicotine or saline, respectively. At PN180, fat mass, hormone levels, and protein contents of biomarkers of the GC activation and receptor (11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and glucocorticoid receptor alpha), insulin signaling pathway [insulin receptor beta (IRβ), phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), phosphorylated serine/threonine kinase (pAKT), serine/threonine kinase, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4)], and vitamin D activation and receptor (1α-hydroxylase and vitamin D receptor) were evaluated. While nicotine-exposed males showed increased fat mass, hypercorticosteronemia, hyperinsulinemia, and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D, these alterations were not observed in nicotine-exposed females. Nicotine-exposed males only showed lower IRS1 in VAT, while the females had hyperglycemia, higher pAKT in VAT, while lower IRβ, IRS1, and GLUT4 in SAT. Parameters related to metabolism and action of GC and vitamin D were unaltered in both sexes. We evidence that exposure exclusively to nicotine during breastfeeding affects the hormone status and fat depots of the adult progeny in a sex-dependent manner.
The production of specialty coffee has several factors and parameters that are added up in the course of production, so that the quality is expressed in the act of consumption. Based on this scenario, this study included the analysis of ten genotypes of arabica coffee, the materials being subjected to irrigated and rainfed water regimes, in a low altitude region, to identify responses for sensory and physical–chemical quality. The genotypes were evaluated in a split-plot scheme with a randomized block design, with three replications. Arabica coffee fruits were harvested with 80% cherry seeds and processed by the wet method. Subsequently, the characteristics related to physical–chemical and sensory analyses were evaluated. The genotypes of the Paraíso group showed great variability for the physical–chemical and sensory variables for rainfed and irrigated regimes. The genotypes of the Catuaí group, however, showed less variability for sensory characteristics in both cultivation environments and for physical–chemical characteristics in the irrigated regime. In the sensorial data set, the genotypes Catuaí 144 CCF and Catuaí 144 SFC (when irrigated) and Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-2, Paraíso H 419-3-3-7-16-11 and Catucaí 24-137 (rainfed cultivation), are more favourable to the production of specialty coffee at low altitude.
Questions remain regarding whether genetic influences on early life psychopathology overlap with cognition and show developmental variation.
Using data from 9,421 individuals aged 8–21 from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, factors of psychopathology were generated using a bifactor model of item-level data from a psychiatric interview. Five orthogonal factors were generated: anxious-misery (mood and anxiety), externalizing (attention deficit hyperactivity and conduct disorder), fear (phobias), psychosis-spectrum, and a general factor. Genetic analyses were conducted on a subsample of 4,662 individuals of European American ancestry. A genetic relatedness matrix was used to estimate heritability of these factors, and genetic correlations with executive function, episodic memory, complex reasoning, social cognition, motor speed, and general cognitive ability. Gene × Age analyses determined whether genetic influences on these factors show developmental variation.
Externalizing was heritable (h2 = 0.46, p = 1 × 10−6), but not anxious-misery (h2 = 0.09, p = 0.183), fear (h2 = 0.04, p = 0.337), psychosis-spectrum (h2 = 0.00, p = 0.494), or general psychopathology (h2 = 0.21, p = 0.040). Externalizing showed genetic overlap with face memory (ρg = −0.412, p = 0.004), verbal reasoning (ρg = −0.485, p = 0.001), spatial reasoning (ρg = −0.426, p = 0.010), motor speed (ρg = 0.659, p = 1x10−4), verbal knowledge (ρg = −0.314, p = 0.002), and general cognitive ability (g)(ρg = −0.394, p = 0.002). Gene × Age analyses revealed decreasing genetic variance (γg = −0.146, p = 0.004) and increasing environmental variance (γe = 0.059, p = 0.009) on externalizing.
Cognitive impairment may be a useful endophenotype of externalizing psychopathology and, therefore, help elucidate its pathophysiological underpinnings. Decreasing genetic variance suggests that gene discovery efforts may be more fruitful in children than adolescents or young adults.
Learn about the state-of-the-art at the interface between information theory and data science with this first unified treatment of the subject. Written by leading experts in a clear, tutorial style, and using consistent notation and definitions throughout, it shows how information-theoretic methods are being used in data acquisition, data representation, data analysis, and statistics and machine learning. Coverage is broad, with chapters on signal acquisition, data compression, compressive sensing, data communication, representation learning, emerging topics in statistics, and much more. Each chapter includes a topic overview, definition of the key problems, emerging and open problems, and an extensive reference list, allowing readers to develop in-depth knowledge and understanding. Providing a thorough survey of the current research area and cutting-edge trends, this is essential reading for graduate students and researchers working in information theory, signal processing, machine learning, and statistics.
This article presents a fast and highly efficient algorithm developed to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) volume with a high spatial precision from a set of field ion microscopy (FIM) images, and specific tools developed to characterize crystallographic lattice and defects. A set of FIM digital images and image processing algorithms allow the construction of a 3D reconstruction of the sample at the atomic scale. The capability of the 3D FIM to resolve the crystallographic lattice and the finest defects in metals opens a new way to analyze materials. This spatial precision was quantified on tungsten, analyzed at different analyzing conditions. A specific data mining tool, based on Fourier transforms, was also developed to characterize lattice distortions in the reconstructed volumes. This tool has been used in simulated and experimental volumes to successfully locate and characterize defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries.
Early weaning (EW) is associated with obesity later in life. Here, using an EW model in rats, we investigated changes in feeding behavior and the dopaminergic and endocannabinoid systems (ECS) in the adult offspring. Lactating Wistar rats were divided into two groups: EW, dams were wrapped with a bandage to interrupt suckling during the last 3 days of breastfeeding; CONT; dams fed the pups throughout the period without hindrances. EW animals were compared with CONT animals of the same sex. At PN175, male and female offspring of both groups could freely self-select between high-fat and high-sugar diets (food challenge test). EW males preferred the high-fat diet at 30 min and more of the high-sugar diet after 12 h compared to CONT males. EW females did not show differences in their preference for the palatable diets compared to CONT females. Total intake of standard diet from PN30-PN180 was higher in both male and female EW animals, indicating hyperphagia. At PN180, EW males showed lower type 2 dopamine receptor (D2r) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and dorsal striatum, while EW females had lower tyrosine hydroxylase in the ventral tegmental area and NAc, D1r in the NAc, and D2r in the prefrontal cortex. In the lateral hypothalamus, EW males had lower fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase, whereas EW females showed lower N-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase-D and increased FAAH. Early weaning altered both the dopaminergic and ECS parameters at adulthood, contributing to the eating behavior changes of the progeny in a sex-dependent manner.