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Online grocery shopping could improve access to healthy food, but it may not be equally accessible to all populations – especially those at higher risk for food insecurity. The current study aimed to compare the socio-demographic characteristics of families who ordered groceries online v. those who only shopped in-store.
We analysed enrollment survey and 44 weeks of individually linked grocery transaction data. We used univariate χ2 and t-tests and logistic regression to assess differences in socio-demographic characteristics between households that only shopped in-store and those that shopped online with curbside pickup (online only or online and in-store).
Two Maine supermarkets.
863 parents or caregivers of children under 18 years old enrolled in two fruit and vegetable incentive trials.
Participants had a total of 32 757 transactions. In univariate assessments, online shoppers had higher incomes (P < 0 0001), were less likely to participate in Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; P < 0 0001) and were more likely to be female (P = 0·04). Most online shoppers were 30–39 years old, and few were 50 years or older (P = 0·003). After controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, number of children, number of adults, income and SNAP participation, female primary shoppers (OR = 2·75, P = 0·003), number of children (OR = 1·27, P = 0·04) and income (OR = 3·91 for 186–300 % federal poverty line (FPL) and OR = 6·92 for >300 % FPL, P < 0·0001) were significantly associated with likelihood of shopping online.
In the current study of Maine families, low-income shoppers were significantly less likely to utilise online grocery ordering with curbside pickup. Future studies could focus on elucidating barriers and developing strategies to improve access.
Antibiotics are frequently prescribed inappropriately for acute respiratory infections in the outpatient setting. We report the implementation of a multifaceted outpatient antimicrobial stewardship initiative resulting in a 12.3% absolute reduction of antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis in primary care clinics receiving active interventions.
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared an outbreak of a new viral entity, coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), to be a worldwide pandemic. The characteristics of this virus, as well as its short- and long-term implications, are not yet well understood. The objective of the current paper was to provide a critical review of the emerging literature on COVID-19 and its implications for neurological, neuropsychiatric, and cognitive functioning.
A critical review of recently published empirical research, case studies, and reviews pertaining to central nervous system (CNS) complications of COVID-19 was conducted by searching PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, and bioRxiv.
After considering the available literature, areas thought to be most pertinent to clinical and research neuropsychologists, including CNS manifestations, neurologic symptoms/syndromes, neuroimaging, and potential long-term implications of COVID-19 infection, were reviewed.
Once thought to be merely a respiratory virus, the scientific and medical communities have realized COVID-19 to have broader effects on renal, vascular, and neurological body systems. The question of cognitive deficits is not yet well studied, but neuropsychologists will undoubtedly play an important role in the years to come.
Childhood adversity and anxiety have been associated with increased risk for internalizing disorders later in life and with a range of brain structural abnormalities. However, few studies have examined the link between harsh parenting practices and brain anatomy, outside of severe maltreatment or psychopathology. Moreover, to our knowledge, there has been no research on parenting and subclinical anxiety symptoms which remain persistent over time during childhood (i.e., between 2.5 and 9 years old). Here, we examined data in 94 youth, divided into four cells based on their levels of coercive parenting (high / low) and of anxiety (high / low) between 2.5 and 9 years old. Anatomical images were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and FreeSurfer. Smaller gray matter volumes in the prefrontal cortex regions and in the amygdala were observed in youth with high versus low levels of harsh parenting over time. In addition, we observed significant interaction effects between parenting practices and subclinical anxiety symptoms in rostral anterior cingulate cortical thickness and in amygdala volume. These youth should be followed further in time to identify which youth will or will not go on to develop an anxiety disorder, and to understand factors associated with the development of sustained anxiety psychopathology.
Crary Ice Rise formed after the Ross Ice Shelf re-grounded ~1 kyr BP. We present new ice-penetrating radar data from two systems operating at center frequencies of 7 and 750 MHz that confirm the ice rise is composed of a former ice shelf buried by subsequent accumulation. Stacks of englacial diffraction hyperbolas are present almost everywhere across the central ice rise and extend up to ~350 m above the bed. In many cases, bed reflections beneath the diffraction hyperbolas are obscured for distances up to 1 km. Waveform modeling indicates that the diffraction hyperbolas are likely caused by marine ice deposits in former basal crevasses and rifts. The in-filling of rifts and basal crevasses may have strengthened the connection between the ice rise and the surrounding ice shelf, which could have influenced local and regional ice dynamics. Three internal reflection horizons mark the upper limit of disturbed ice and diffraction hyperbolas in different sections of the ice rise, indicating at least three stages of flow stabilization across the ice rise. A surface lineation visible in MODIS imagery corresponds spatially to deepening and strong deformation of these layers, consistent with the characteristics of former grounding lines observed elsewhere in Antarctica.
Perceived discrimination is associated with worse mental health. Few studies have assessed whether perceived discrimination (i) is associated with the risk of psychotic disorders and (ii) contributes to an increased risk among minority ethnic groups relative to the ethnic majority.
We used data from the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions Work Package 2, a population-based case−control study of incident psychotic disorders in 17 catchment sites across six countries. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between perceived discrimination and psychosis using mixed-effects logistic regression models. We used stratified and mediation analyses to explore differences for minority ethnic groups.
Reporting any perceived experience of major discrimination (e.g. unfair treatment by police, not getting hired) was higher in cases than controls (41.8% v. 34.2%). Pervasive experiences of discrimination (≥3 types) were also higher in cases than controls (11.3% v. 5.5%). In fully adjusted models, the odds of psychosis were 1.20 (95% CI 0.91–1.59) for any discrimination and 1.79 (95% CI 1.19–1.59) for pervasive discrimination compared with no discrimination. In stratified analyses, the magnitude of association for pervasive experiences of discrimination appeared stronger for minority ethnic groups (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.12–2.68) than the ethnic majority (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 0.65–3.10). In exploratory mediation analysis, pervasive discrimination minimally explained excess risk among minority ethnic groups (5.1%).
Pervasive experiences of discrimination are associated with slightly increased odds of psychotic disorders and may minimally help explain excess risk for minority ethnic groups.
Deeper knowledge about how species and communities respond to climate change and environmental gradients should be supported by evidence from the past, especially as modern responses are influenced by anthropogenic pressures, including human population growth, habitat destruction and fragmentation, and intensifying land use. There have been great advances in modeling species’ geographic distributions over shallow time, where consideration of evolutionary change is likely less important due to shorter time for evolution and speciation to occur. Over these shallow time periods, we have more resources for paleoclimate interpretation across large geographic landscapes. We can also gain insight into species and community changes by studying deep records of temporal changes. However, modeling species geographic distributions in deep time remains challenging, because for many species there is sparse coverage of spatial and temporal occurrences and there are fewer paleoclimate general circulation models (GCMs) to help interpret the geographic distribution of climate availability. In addition, at deeper time periods, it is essential to consider evolutionary change within lineages of species. I will discuss a framework that integrates evolutionary information in the form of phylogenetic relatedness from clades of extant closely related species, where and when there are associated fossil occurrences, and the geographic distribution of paleoclimate in deep time to infer species past geographic response to climate change and to estimate where and when there were hotspots of ancient diversification. More work is needed to better understand the evolution of physiological tolerances and how physiological tolerances relate to the climate space in which species occur.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This study helps translate investigational bedside optical coherence tomography into improved diagnosis and care of preterm infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: In retinopathy of prematurity screening, fundus photography may be of limited quality in eyes with dark fundus pigmentation (FP). The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of FP on overall scan quality and retinal layer visibility on investigational bedside optical coherence tomography (OCT) in preterm infants. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We analyzed 846 OCT scans captured prospectively from 188 eyes of 94 preterm infants enrolled in the BabySTEPS study (NCT02887157). Trained ophthalmologists, masked to OCT findings, determined FP (blond, medium, or dark). Expert graders, masked to FP, evaluated OCT images for: 1) overall OCT quality (excellent, acceptable, poor, or unusable); and 2) all age-appropriate retinal layers visible (yes or no). To assess the association of FP with OCT quality (excellent/acceptable or poor/unusable) and retinal layer visibility, we performed multivariable logistic regression modeling, adjusting for biologic and demographic confounders and correlations from repeated OCT scans and paired eyes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Mean birthweight was 964 (SD=283) grams, mean gestational age was 27.8 (SD=2.6) weeks, 48 (51%) infants were male, and 51 (54%) were non-white. On exam, 72 (38%) eyes had blond FP, 92 (49%) had medium, and 24 (13%) had dark. OCT quality was excellent or acceptable in 725 scans (86%) and all age-appropriate retinal layers were visible in 781 scans (92%). Compared to eyes with blond FP, eyes with medium and dark FP did not have higher odds of poor/unusable OCT scan quality (adjusted OR 0.87 [95% CI 0.50-1.48] and 0.49 [95% CI 0.16-1.55], respectively) or not all age-appropriate retinal layers visible on OCT (adjusted OR 1.17 [95% CI 0.39-3.51] and 0.57 [95% CI 0.15-2.20], respectively). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Medium and dark FP did not impact overall scan quality or age-appropriate retinal layer visibility on investigational bedside OCT in preterm infants. This study supports the feasibility of using OCT to analyze retinal microanatomy in diverse populations of preterm infants with a range of FP.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work investigates C. difficile strains in soil as a potential exposure for gut colonization and community-acquired infection of C. difficile. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Identifying environmental sources of C. difficile can inform how non-hospital reservoirs can potentially contribute to C. difficile exposure and subsequent gastrointestinal colonization. The objective of the study was to identify C. difficile and toxin genes across various soil sources. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a cross-sectional study utilizing soil samples obtained throughout Texas, USA. All samples were collected between August and November of 2019 and 2020. Samples were taken from human and animal high contact areas, such as recreational parks. Samples were stored at -80oC until processing. DNA extractions were performed using the DNeasy Powersoil Pro Kit (Qiagen) per manufacturer’s instructions. Real-time PCR was also performed on extracted DNA using the Microbial DNA qPCR Multi-Assay Kit for Clostridium difficile Pathogenicity (Qiagen) for the identification of C. difficile, toxin A (TcdA), and toxin B (TcdB) genes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 137 soil samples including dry dirt, sand, and wet soil near water sources were collected and processed for the presence of C. difficile. These included samples from parks and trails (42.3%), water sources (36.5%), and other public spaces (21.2%). C. difficile was identified in 59 (43.1%) soil samples: 6 (4.4%) with Toxin A and 2 (1.5%) with toxin B production. C. difficile was most prevalent among samples taken from parks and trails (50.0%), followed by other public spaces (48.3%), and water sources (32.0%). The median (IQR) Cq value for the C. difficile gene was 39.24 (33.45-40.47) among samples that tested positive. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: We identified a high prevalence of Clostridioides difficile in soil samples, though toxin gene detection prevalence was low. Future studies will analyze other sources, including water and varying surface samples to obtain a comprehensive view of C. difficile in the environment.
To stop transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in association with myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) at a cardiology clinic.
Outbreak investigation and quasispecies analysis of HCV hypervariable region 1 genome.
Outpatient cardiology clinic.
Patients undergoing MPI.
Case patients met definitions for HBV or HCV infection. Cases were identified through surveillance registry cross-matching against clinic records and serological screening. Observations of clinic practices were performed.
During 2012–2014, 7 cases of HCV and 4 cases of HBV occurred in 4 distinct clusters among patients at a cardiology clinic. Among 3 case patients with HCV infection who had MPI on June 25, 2014, 2 had 98.48% genetic identity of HCV RNA. Among 4 case patients with HCV infection who had MPI on March 13, 2014, 3 had 96.96%–99.24% molecular identity of HCV RNA. Also, 2 clusters of 2 patients each with HBV infection had MPI on March 7, 2012, and December 4, 2014. Clinic staff reused saline vials for >1 patient. No infection control breaches were identified at the compounding pharmacy that supplied the clinic. Patients seen in clinic through March 27, 2015, were encouraged to seek testing for HBV, HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus. The clinic switched to all single-dose medications and single-use intravenous flushes on March 27, 2015, and no further cases were identified.
This prolonged healthcare-associated outbreak of HBV and HCV was most likely related to breaches in injection safety. Providers should follow injection safety guidelines in all practice settings.
Systemic venous hypertension and low cardiac output are believed to be important mediators of liver injury after the Fontan procedure. Pulmonary vasodilators have the potential to improve such haemodynamics. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of exercise on liver stiffness and venous pressures and to assess the impact of inhaled Treprostinil on this response.
In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 14 patients with a Fontan circulation were randomised to inhalation of placebo and Treprostinil. Incremental and constant work rate exercise tests were performed to assess the effect of Treprostinil on exercise tolerance. Venous pressures were measured throughout and liver stiffness at rest and immediately after peak exercise.
Mean age was 27.8 ± 7.9 years and 66% were females. Exercise acutely increased liver stiffness by 30% (mean shear wave speed: 2.38 ± 0.71 versus 2.89 ± 0.51 ms, p = 0.02). Peripheral venous pressures increased acutely during both incremental (12.1 ± 2.4 versus 22.6 ± 8.0 mmHg, p < 0.001) and constant work rate exercise (12.5 ± 2.5 versus 23.4 ± 5.2 mmHg, p < 0.001). Overall, Treprostinil failed to attenuate exercise-induced increases in liver stiffness. Compared with placebo, Treprostinil did not significantly impact venous pressure responses, VO2peak, nor exercise endurance times.
Peripheral venous pressure increased acutely during exercise by an average of 88% above baseline and was not altered by administration of inhaled Treprostinil. Liver stiffness measured immediately post-exercise increased acutely by an average of 30%, with no attenuation following Treprostinil inhalation.
The COVID-19 pandemic has seen an increase in depression and anxiety among those with and without a history of mental illness. Commonly used forms of psychological therapy improve mental health by teaching psychotherapeutic strategies that assist people to better manage their symptoms and cope with life stressors. Minimal research to date has explored their application or value in managing mental health during significant broad-scale public health crises.
To determine which psychotherapeutic strategies people who have previously received therapy use to manage their distress during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the use and perceived helpfulness of these strategies has an effect on symptoms of depression and anxiety.
Data (N = 857) was drawn from multiple waves of a representative longitudinal study of the effects of COVID-19 on the mental health of Australian adults, which includes measures of anxiety, depression and experiences with psychotherapy and psychotherapeutic strategies.
Previous engagement in therapy with psychotherapeutic strategies had a protective effect on depressive but not anxiety symptoms. Common and helpful strategies used by respondents were exercise, mindfulness and breathing exercises. Using mindfulness and perceiving it to be helpful was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. No other strategies were associated with improved mental health.
Prior knowledge of psychotherapeutic strategies may play a role in managing mental health during unprecedented public health events such as a global pandemic. There may be value in promoting these techniques more widely in the community to manage general distress during such times.
School-based studies, despite the large number of studies conducted, have reported inconclusive results on obesity prevention. The sample size is a major constraint in such studies by requiring large samples. This pooled analysis overcomes this problem by analysing 5926 students (mean age 11·5 years) from five randomised school-based interventions. These studies focused on encouraging students to change their drinking and eating habits, and physical activities over the one school year, with monthly 1-h sessions in the classroom; culinary class aimed at developing cooking skills to increase healthy eating and attempts to family engagement. Pooled intention-to-treat analysis using linear mixed models accounted for school clusters. Control and intervention groups were balanced at baseline. The overall result was a non-significant change in BMI after one school year of positive changes in behaviours associated with obesity. Estimated mean BMI changed from 19·02 to 19·22 kg/m2 in the control group and from 19·08 to 19·32 kg/m2 in the intervention group (P value of change over time = 0·09). Subgroup analyses among those overweight or with obesity at baseline also did not show differences between intervention and control groups. The percentage of fat measured by bioimpedance indicated a small reduction in the control compared with intervention (P = 0·05). This large pooled analysis showed no effect on obesity measures, although promising results were observed about modifying behaviours associated with obesity.
To evaluate energetic contribution according to the degree of industrial food processing and its association with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics in adolescents.
Cross-sectional study (Adolescent Lifestyle Study). Food consumption was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls, with foods classified by degree of industrial progressing. The usual diet was estimated using the Multiple Source Method. In a linear regression model, the energy percentage (E %) was associated with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics, after adjustment for sex and age.
Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
Eight hundred and four adolescents, of both sexes, 14–19 years of age, enrolled in public schools.
The E % of unprocessed or minimally processed foods corresponded to 43·1 %, processed foods to 11·0 % and the ultraprocessed foods to 45·9 %. E % of unprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = −0·093; P = 0·032), neck circumference (adjusted β = 0·017; P = 0·049), screen time (adjusted β = −0·247; P = 0·036) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = −0·156; P = 0·003). E % of ultraprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = 0·118; P = 0·011), screen time (adjusted β = 0·375; P = 0·003), BMI (adjusted β = −0·029; P = 0·025), neck circumference (adjusted β = −0·017; P = 0·028) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = 0·150; P = 0·002).
There was a high E % of ultraprocessed foods in the diet of the adolescents. Actions are needed to raise the awareness of adopting healthy eating habits.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding of Earth's sensitivity to carbon dioxide, finds that permafrost thaw could release more carbon emissions than expected and that the uptake of carbon in tropical ecosystems is weakening. Adverse impacts on human society include increasing water shortages and impacts on mental health. Options for solutions emerge from rethinking economic models, rights-based litigation, strengthened governance systems and a new social contract. The disruption caused by COVID-19 could be seized as an opportunity for positive change, directing economic stimulus towards sustainable investments.
A synthesis is made of ten fields within climate science where there have been significant advances since mid-2019, through an expert elicitation process with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) a better understanding of equilibrium climate sensitivity; (2) abrupt thaw as an accelerator of carbon release from permafrost; (3) changes to global and regional land carbon sinks; (4) impacts of climate change on water crises, including equity perspectives; (5) adverse effects on mental health from climate change; (6) immediate effects on climate of the COVID-19 pandemic and requirements for recovery packages to deliver on the Paris Agreement; (7) suggested long-term changes to governance and a social contract to address climate change, learning from the current pandemic, (8) updated positive cost–benefit ratio and new perspectives on the potential for green growth in the short- and long-term perspective; (9) urban electrification as a strategy to move towards low-carbon energy systems and (10) rights-based litigation as an increasingly important method to address climate change, with recent clarifications on the legal standing and representation of future generations.
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Stronger permafrost thaw, COVID-19 effects and growing mental health impacts among highlights of latest climate science.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global response underscores the need for a multidisciplinary approach that integrates and coordinates various public health systems—surveillance, laboratory, and health-care systems/networks, among others—as part of a larger emergency response system. Multidisciplinary public health rapid response teams (RRTs) are one mechanism used within a larger COVID-19 outbreak response strategy. As COVID-19 RRTs are deployed, countries are facing operational challenges in optimizing their RRT’s impact, while ensuring the safety of their RRT responders. From March to May 2020, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention received requests from 12 countries for technical assistance related to COVID-19 RRTs and emergency operations support. Challenges included: (1) an insufficient number of RRT responders available for COVID-19 deployments; (2) limited capacity to monitor RRT responders’ health, safety, and resiliency; (3) difficulty converting critical in-person RRT operational processes to remote information technology platforms; and (4) stigmatization of RRT responders hindering COVID-19 interventions. Although geographically and socioeconomically diverse, these 12 countries experienced similar RRT operational challenges, indicating potential applicability to other countries. As the response has highlighted the critical need for immediate and effective implementation measures, addressing these challenges is essential to ensuring an impactful and sustainable COVID-19 response strategy globally.
Subclinical atherosclerosis in childhood can be evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness, which is considered a surrogate marker for atherosclerotic disease in adulthood. The aims of this study were to evaluate carotid intima-media thickness and, to investigate associated factors.
Cross-sectional study with children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness. Cardiovascular risk factors, such as physical activity, screen time, passive smoke, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, dietary intake, lipid parameters, glycaemia, and C-reactive protein, were also assessed. Factors associated with carotid intima-media thickness were analysed using multiple logistic regression.
The mean carotid intima-media thickness was 0.518 mm and 46.7% had subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness ≥ 97th percentile). After adjusting for confounding factors, cyanotic CHD (odds ratio: 0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.20; 0.78), cardiac surgery (odds ratio: 3.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.35; 7.48), and be hospitalised to treat infections (odds ratio: 1.92; 95% confidence interval: 1.04; 3.54) were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.
Clinical characteristics related to CHD were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. This finding suggests that the presence of CHD itself is a risk factor for subclinical atherosclerosis. Therefore, the screen and control of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors should be made early and intensively to prevent atherosclerosis.
The use of an electronic hand hygiene monitoring system (EHHMS) decreased due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We analyzed dispenser use, hand hygiene (HH) badge use, and HH compliance to determine the effect of COVID-19 on EHHMS use and HH compliance. HH product shortages and other pandemic-induced challenges influenced EHHMS use.