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Luskin and Bullock’s (2011) randomized experiment on live-interview respondents found no evidence that American National Election Studies and Time-Sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences respondents hide knowledge behind the “don’t know” (DK) option. We successfully replicated their finding using two online platforms, the Cooperative Congressional Election Study and Google Surveys. However, we obtained different results on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk). We attribute this difference to MTurkers’ experience with attention checks and other quality-control mechanisms, which condition them to avoid errors. This conditioning leads MTurkers to hide knowledge behind DK in ways not observed on other platforms. Researchers conducting political knowledge experiments or piloting surveys on MTurk should be aware of these differences.
Ethnic inequalities in the experiences and outcomes of severe mental illness are well established. These include a higher incidence of severe mental illnesses (psychoses), adverse pathways into and through care, including crisis care, police and criminal justice systems involvement, and care under the powers of the Mental Health Act. The situation persists despite awareness and is driven by a mixture of the social determinants of poor health, societal disadvantage and structural racism, as well as conflictual interactions with care systems, which themselves are configured in ways that sustain or deepen these inequalities. Although training and education are often proposed, this is not shown to have sustained effects. Clinical processes (interviewing/assessment/formulation/intervention) need to address systemic influences and improve the cultural precision with which care is delivered, organised and commissioned. We discuss clinical ethnography and present evidence of its value in addressing systemic as well as individual care needs for diverse communities.
Treatment of locally advanced hypopharyngeal cancer can cause significant morbidity and late toxicity. Pharyngo-laryngo-oesophagectomy can achieve adequate surgical margins, but data on survival and functional outcome are limited, especially in Wales. This study aimed to describe mortality, morbidity and functional outcome following pharyngo-laryngo-oesophagectomy in a Welsh population.
This study was a retrospective case note review of pharyngo-laryngo-oesophagectomy cases in Wales over 12 years.
Fifteen patients underwent pharyngo-laryngo-oesophagectomy; all but one underwent gastric pull-up. Median survival and disease-free survival were 17 months (range, 2–53 months) and 14 months. Censored 3-month, 1-year and 3-year survival was 93, 71 and 50 per cent, respectively. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grading of long-term dysphagia was 1 in 58 per cent, 2 in 33 per cent and 3 in 8 per cent, and 87.5 per cent achieved a ‘moderate’ or ‘good’ voice rehabilitation.
These results demonstrate favourable survival and reasonable functional outcome following pharyngo-laryngo-oesophagectomy, suggesting pharyngo-laryngo-oesophagectomy should be considered in all appropriate surgical candidates.
Cognitive and behavioral impairment are common in children living with perinatally acquired HIV (pHIV) and children exposed to HIV in utero but uninfected (HEU).
We sought to determine the prevalence of adverse behavioral symptomatology using a Thai-translated and validated version of the SNAP-IV questionnaire and assess cognitive function utilizing the Children's Color Trails Test, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, in our cohort of Thai adolescents (10–20 years old) with well-controlled pHIV compared to HEU and HIV-unexposed, uninfected youth. We then evaluated the interaction between HIV status, behavioral impairment, and executive function outcomes independent of demographic variables.
After controlling for demographic factors of age and household income, adolescents with pHIV had higher inattentive symptomatology and poorer neuropsychological test scores compared to uninfected controls. Significant interactions were found between inattention and executive function across multiple neurocognitive tests.
Behavioral impairment and poor executive functioning are present in adolescents with well-controlled pHIV compared to HIV-uninfected matched peers. The SNAP-IV questionnaire may be a useful tool to identify those with attentional impairment who may benefit from further cognitive testing in resource-limited settings.
Within the Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Research Design (BERD) component of the Northwestern University Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, we created a mentoring program to complement training provided by the associated Multidisciplinary Career Development Program (KL2). Called Research design Analysis Methods Program (RAMP) Mentors, the program provides each KL2 scholar with individualized, hands-on mentoring in biostatistics, epidemiology, informatics, and related fields, with the goal of building multidisciplinary research teams. From 2015 to 2019, RAMP Mentors paired 8 KL2 scholars with 16 individually selected mentors. Mentors had funded/protected time to meet at least monthly with their scholar to provide advice and instruction on methods for ongoing research, including incorporating novel techniques. RAMP Mentors has been evaluated through focus groups and surveys. KL2 scholars reported high satisfaction with RAMP Mentors and confidence in their ability to establish and maintain methodologic collaborations. Compared with other Northwestern University K awardees, KL2 scholars reported higher confidence in obtaining research funding, including subsequent K or R awards, and selecting appropriate, up-to-date research methods. RAMP Mentors is a promising partnership between a BERD group and KL2 program, promoting methodologic education and building multidisciplinary research teams for junior investigators pursuing clinical and translational research.
To characterize the spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic germline variants in women from south-west Poland and west Ukraine affected with breast or ovarian cancer. Testing in women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in these regions is currently mainly limited to founder mutations.
Unrelated women affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer from Poland (n = 337) and Ukraine (n = 123) were screened by targeted sequencing. Excluded from targeted sequencing were 34 Polish women who had previously been identified as carrying a founder mutation in BRCA1. No prior testing had been conducted among the Ukrainian women. Thus, this study screened BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the germline DNA of 426 women in total.
We identified 31 and 18 women as carriers of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) genetic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. We observed five BRCA1 and eight BRCA2 P/LP variants (13/337, 3.9%) in the Polish women. Combined with the 34/337 (10.1%) founder variants identified prior to this study, the overall P/LP variant frequency in the Polish women was thus 14% (47/337). Among the Ukrainian women, 16/123 (13%) women were identified as carrying a founder mutation and 20/123 (16.3%) were found to carry non-founder P/LP variants (10 in BRCA1 and 10 in BRCA2).
These results indicate that genetic testing in women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in Poland and Ukraine should not be limited to founder mutations. Extended testing will enhance risk stratification and management for these women and their families.
Irritability and anxiety frequently co-occur in pediatric populations. Studies separately looking at the neural correlates of these symptoms have identified engagement of similar neural systems – particularly those implicated in emotional processing. Both irritability and anxiety can be considered negative valence emotional states that might relate to emotion dysregulation. However, previous work has not examined the neural responding during the performance of an emotion regulation task as a function of interaction between irritability and anxiety simultaneously.
This fMRI study involved 155 participants (90 with significant psychopathologies and 92 male) who performed the Affective Stroop Task, designed to engage emotion regulation as a function of task demands. The Affective Reactivity Index (ARI) was used to index irritability and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) was used to index anxiety.
Levels of irritability, but not anxiety, was positively correlated with responses to visual images within the right rostro-medial prefrontal cortex and left anterior cingulate cortex during view trials. The second region of ventral anterior cingulate cortex showed a condition-by-emotion-by-ARI score-by-SCARED score interaction. Specifically, anxiety level was significantly correlated with a decreased differential BOLD response to negative relative to neutral view trials but only in the presence of relatively high irritability.
Atypical maintenance of emotional stimuli within the rostro-medial prefrontal cortex may exacerbate the difficulties faced by adolescents with irritability. Moreover, increased anxiety combined with significant irritability may disrupt an automatic emotional conflict-based form of emotion regulation that is particularly associated with the ventral anterior cingulate cortex.
Acute cannabis administration can produce transient psychotic-like effects in healthy individuals. However, the mechanisms through which this occurs and which factors predict vulnerability remain unclear. We investigate whether cannabis inhalation leads to psychotic-like symptoms and speech illusion; and whether cannabidiol (CBD) blunts such effects (study 1) and adolescence heightens such effects (study 2).
Two double-blind placebo-controlled studies, assessing speech illusion in a white noise task, and psychotic-like symptoms on the Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI). Study 1 compared effects of Cann-CBD (cannabis containing Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and negligible levels of CBD) with Cann+CBD (cannabis containing THC and CBD) in 17 adults. Study 2 compared effects of Cann-CBD in 20 adolescents and 20 adults. All participants were healthy individuals who currently used cannabis.
In study 1, relative to placebo, both Cann-CBD and Cann+CBD increased PSI scores but not speech illusion. No differences between Cann-CBD and Cann+CBD emerged. In study 2, relative to placebo, Cann-CBD increased PSI scores and incidence of speech illusion, with the odds of experiencing speech illusion 3.1 (95% CIs 1.3–7.2) times higher after Cann-CBD. No age group differences were found for speech illusion, but adults showed heightened effects on the PSI.
Inhalation of cannabis reliably increases psychotic-like symptoms in healthy cannabis users and may increase the incidence of speech illusion. CBD did not influence psychotic-like effects of cannabis. Adolescents may be less vulnerable to acute psychotic-like effects of cannabis than adults.
Data from an ongoing family interview study suggest that schizoaffective probands - including even those with a very brief history of a major depressive or manic syndrome - display a high prevalence of major mood disorders in their first-degree relatives. In this respect, schizoaffective probands proved significantly different from ‘pure’ schizophrenic probands, but not significantly different from bipolar probands.
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of anxiety on attentional performance with neutral stimuli. It was set up as follows: a fourfold comparison was made of trait anxiety and state anxiety. Sixty-two undergraduate students were included in the study, and four groups of subjects were set up by a median split of the scores obtained on the Spielberger Trait and State Anxiety Inventory (STAI): high trait-high state (N = 18); high trait-low state (N = 11); low trait-low state (N = 23); low trait-high state (N = 10). A computerized battery of neuropsychological tests, the ACE battery, was administered to provide a multidimensional assessment of attention. The ACE battery comprises five tests which assess the following aspects of attention: ability to monitor a routine task; temporal preparation; visual detection; memory span; visual spatial attention and memory. High state anxious subjects displayed impairment in executive functions, manifested by a significantly higher level of motor preparation in a simple reaction time (RT) task and a speed accuracy trade-off in a divided attention task; high trait anxious subjects performed significantly better on the visual detection task. No trait × state interaction was found. It was concluded that high state anxiety is associated with psychomotor alertness and high trait anxiety with perceptual alertness. These two dimensions of psychometric anxiety seem to have effects on attention that are independent of one another and which should be analysed separately in the future.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.