In neuroleptic long-term medication, only part of the patients accept regular intake of neuroleptic drugs. The question is whether an interval medication regimen as opposed to continuous medication can help to reduce drop outs in patients with critical attitudes towards long-term medication. In a 2-year prospective study, 122 patients were randomised to an interval and 164 to a continuous neuroleptic medication regimen. The drop out rates were 62.5% in the interval and 53.7% in the continuous medication group. Drop outs generally show more negative attitudes towards treatment. Patients with negative attitudes do not do better under interval medication. Moreover, this regimen even requires more cooperation and trust in terms of the necessity of medication on the part of the patient compared to the continuous medication regimen. Interval medication therefore is a strategy which can only be successful in highly cooperative, but not in treatment-reluctant patients.