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It is challenging to predict the changes in weed flora that may occur because of changes in global climate. Limited data are available on the effect of climate change and drought conditions on weed flora and their competitiveness in Southern Europe. Future predictions by scientists indicate reduced and untimely rainfall, along with increased temperatures in this region. Weeds possess a variety of developmental and physiological mechanisms, including senescing, increased leaf cuticular wax deposition, well-developed palisade parenchyma in the leaves, high root/shoot ratio, stomatal closure, peroxidase accumulation and symbiosis with endophytes that enable them to adapt to drought and high temperatures. Because of high adaptability of weeds to adverse environmental conditions, it can be assumed that under future warmer and drier environmental conditions, their growth will be favoured, while the competitiveness of vegetable crops against weeds will be decreased. It is important to highlight that the predicted decrease in overall rainfall levels throughout the year may lead to increased problems of herbicide residues (carryover effects) to following crops. The current paper provides an up-to-date overview of the adaptation mechanisms of weed species commonly found in Southern Europe, in order to expand the available knowledge regarding their response to drought and elevated temperatures. Emphasis is placed on revealing the effects of drought and increased temperatures on vegetable–weed competition and, most importantly, its effect on vegetable crop yield.
Sudden death in young competitive athletes can be avoided by implementation of pre-participation screening programmes. A screening programme should be performed only by trained physicians and should include the athlete’s personal and family history, physical examination results, and the readings from a 12-lead-electrocardiogram. The athlete should undergo this screening programme every second year to detect progressive diseases. In addition, the programme should include detailed instructions to the athletes to pause training during infections in order to prevent sudden death due to myocarditis.
In this work we present a fabrication method for developing thermal sensors on flexible organic substrates. The constructed devices consist of Pt resistors which are directly integrated to the copper tracks of a flexible copper-clad laminate. They reside on top of a 12 $\mu $m thick SU-8 planarization layer, while a sacrificial layer utilized by the negative photoresist ma-N was used in order to define the resistor pattern. The resistors can act as both heating and temperature sensing elements, while due to small thickness and the low thermal conductivity of the Kapton substrate, a very effective thermal isolation is achieved. The minimum radius of curvature of the fabricated devices was found to be 5 mm. As the device is in direct communication to the macrowolrd, the need for wire bonding is eliminated, while the final surface of the produced sensor is relatively planar. The overall process is simple and cost-effective with minimal requirements in fabrication time. The potential application field of the presented devices is considered quite extensive as they can be directly expanded into flexible sensors able to measure quantities such as fluid flow rate, displacement or vacuum.
Previous studies of schizophrenia have suggested a linkage between neuropsychological (NP) deficits and hippocampus abnormality. The relationship between hippocampus volume and NP functioning was investigated in 24 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 24 matched healthy controls. Overall intracranial, white and gray matter, and anterior (AH) and posterior (PH) hippocampus volumes were assessed from magnetic resonance images (MRI). NP domains of IQ, attention, and executive function were also evaluated with respect to volumetric measures. It was hypothesized that AH and PH volumes and episodic memory scores would be positively associated in controls and that the schizophrenia group would depart from this normative pattern. NP functioning was impaired overall and AH volume was smaller in the schizophrenia group. In the controls, the hippocampus–memory relationships involved AH and PH, and correlations were significant for verbal memory measures. In the schizophrenia group, positive correlations were constrained to PH. Negative correlations emerged between AH and verbal and visual memory measures. For both groups, cortical volume negatively correlated with age, but a negative correlation between age and hippocampus volume was found only in the schizophrenia group. In this sample of adults with schizophrenia, atypical relationships between regional hippocampus volumes and episodic memory ability were found, as was an atypical negative association between hippocampus volume and age. (JINS, 2009, 15, 182–195.)
We study the electrohydrodynamic stability of the interface between two superposed viscous fluids in a channel subjected to a normal electric field. The two fluids can have different densities, viscosities, permittivities and conductivities. The interface allows surface charges, and there exists an electrical tangential shear stress at the interface owing to the finite conductivities of the two fluids. The long-wave linear stability analysis is performed within the generic Orr–Sommerfeld framework for both perfect and leaky dielectrics. In the framework of the long-wave linear stability analysis, the wave speed is expressed in terms of the ratio of viscosities, densities, permittivities and conductivities of the two fluids. For perfect dielectrics, the electric field always has a destabilizing effect, whereas for leaky dielectrics, the electric field can have either a destabilizing or a stabilizing effect depending on the ratios of permittivities and conductivities of the two fluids. In addition, the linear stability analysis for all wavenumbers is carried out numerically using the Chebyshev spectral method, and the various types of neutral stability curves (NSC) obtained are discussed.
Gabapentin and local anaesthetics may decrease postoperative pain and analgesic needs. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the combination of these drugs on the analgesic needs as well as on acute and late pain after abdominal hysterectomy.
Sixty patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were randomly assigned to receive postoperatively oral gabapentin 400 mg 6 hourly for 7 days plus continuous wound infusion of ropivacaine 0.75% for 30 h or placebo capsules identical to those of gabapentin for 7 days and continuous wound infusion of normal saline for 30 h. Morphine consumption (PCA) for 48 h, paracetamol 500 mg plus codeine 30 mg (Lonalgal® tablets) intake on days 3–7, visual analogue pain scores at rest and after cough during the first 7 postoperative days, the need for analgesics at home and the presence and incidence of pain after 1 month were recorded.
The treatment group consumed less cumulative morphine over the first 48 h (31 ± 13.2 mg vs. 50 ± 20.5 mg in controls, P < 0.001) and less Lonalgal® tablets on days 3–7 (z = 2.54, P = 0.011). The visual analogue score values at rest and after cough did not differ between the groups during the first 7 postoperative days. One month postoperatively, fewer patients in the treatment group experienced pain due to surgery than in the control group (17/27 vs. 21/24, P = 0.045).
Gabapentin and continuous wound infusion with ropivacaine 0.75% decreased analgesic needs and late pain in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy.
Background and objective: Gabapentin has been suggested to decrease acute postoperative pain. We evaluated the effect of gabapentin on pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were randomized to receive orally gabapentin 400 mg 6 hourly or placebo. Treatment started 18 h preoperatively and continued for 5 postoperative days. Pain (visual analogue score) and consumption of morphine for 48 h and of oral paracetamol/codeine were recorded after 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h and on days 3–5 postoperatively. After 1 month, patients were interviewed by phone for pain, and analgesic intake after hospital discharge. Results: Morphine consumption (mean ± SD) was 35 ± 15.7 mg in the control and 28 ± 12.1 mg in the gabapentin group (P = 0.21). Median number (range) of paracetamol 500 mg/codeine 30 mg tablets taken during days 3–5 was 1.0 (0–6) in the control and 2.0 (0–9) in the gabapentin group (P = 0.35). The visual analogue scores at rest and after cough did not differ between the two groups (F = 0.92, df = 1, P = 0.34 and F = 0.56, df = 1, P = 0.46, respectively). One month after surgery, 22/27 (81%) of the control group and 9/25 (36%) of the gabapentin group reported pain in the surgical area (χ2 = 11.15, P = 0.002), while 11/27 (41%) of controls and 7/25 (28%) of gabapentin patients consumed analgesics for pain (χ2 = 0.93, P = 0.39). The intensity of pain was decreased in the gabapentin group (χ2 = 12.6, P = 0.003). Conclusions: Gabapentin has no effect on immediate pain after abdominal hysterectomy but decreases pain 1 month postoperatively.
We report a light-induced, surface-assisted structural phase transition from a common orthorhombic phase of crystalline gallium (α-gallium) to a highly reflective, metastable phase of more ‘metallic’ nature. The transition has been observed at the interface of gallium with fused silica at temperatures just below the metal's bulk melting point and affects only several tens of gallium atomic layers. The transition is fully reversible and occurs on a nanosecond/microsecond time scale. The transition appears to show some characteristic features of a second order structural phase transition, including an increase of the transition relaxation times at the critical temperature (of approximately 30°C). The transition has no apparent optical intensity threshold, and is induced by radiation of very low intensity of only 10−4 − 10−5 W/μm2. The two gallium phases involved in the phase transition have significantly different dielectric properties which gives rise to a gigantic cubic optical nonlinearity, χ(3) ∼ 1 esu. The transition can be stimulated by light at any wavelength in the visible and the infrared ranges out to at least 1.55μm. The effect is therefore of great interest for applications requiring light by light control at milliwatt power levels.