To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Figurative communication (the use of metaphor, metonymy, hyperbole and irony) provides economy of expression, clarity, persuasiveness, politeness, evaluation, and communication of emotions. However, it also increases the potential for misunderstanding in situations when people lack shared background knowledge. This book combines theoretical frameworks with empirical studies that measure the effectiveness of different approaches to the use of figurative language in advertisements, to show how to maximise the benefits of creative metaphor and metonymy in global advertising. It highlights how subtle differences in colour, layout, and combinations of different kinds of figurative language affect the reception and appreciation of creative advertising, shedding new light on the nature of figurative communication itself. With a balance between theory, experiments and practical case studies, this book is accessible for academics in linguistics and communication studies, as well as advertising and marketing professionals.
This volume compares the evolution and current status of two of the world's major languages, English and Spanish. Parallel chapters trace the emergence of Global English and Spanish and their current status, covering aspects such as language and dialect contact, language typology, norm development in pluricentric languages, and identity construction. Case studies look into the use of English and Spanish on the internet, investigate mixed and alternating lects, as well as ongoing change in Spanish-speaking minorities in the US. The volume thus contributes to current theoretical debates and provides fresh empirical data. While offering an in-depth treatment of the evolution of English and Spanish to the reader, this book introduces the driving factors and the effects of the emergence of world languages in general and is relevant for researchers and students of sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, and typology alike.
Chapter 7 wraps up the main theoretical and methodological arguments raised in the previous chapters concerning the evolutionary nature of genres in order to set an agenda for future joint research on research genres and languages of science. Some final reflections on ecological diversity, the ‘multilingualisation of science’ and ways of managing language diversity in research communication will validate previous seminal conceptualisations of genre. In closing, the chapter will underline the need to deploy systematic and robust methodologies when conducting genre research, in the belief that this will give greater rigour to the outcomes of future enquiries into research genres across languages.
Chapter 1 situates research genres in today’s rapidly changing technological and social contexts. The aim of the chapter is to set the scene in which research genres enact social actions, particularly through new media environments, and to focus on systems of genres of research that are evolving in response to the multiple accountabilities of scientific knowledge production, dissemination and consumption today. In reviewing some of the consequences of globalisation, this chapter briefly reviews the particular conditions that post-globalisation processes – for example, skilled migration and the boost in researchers’ mobility – have created in academic and research settings. The chapter also briefly describes the effects of such processes on researchers’ socioliterate activity at a time of unprecedented sociocultural and sociolinguistic diversity.
Chapter 2 revises some seminal definitions of ‘genre’ and key conceptualisations in genre theory, such as ‘genres as frames for social action’, ‘intended audiences’ and ‘communicative purpose(s)’. The intention is to introduce and reflect upon recent conceptualisations of web-mediated generified activity – for example, ‘genre remediation’, ‘transmediality’, ‘polycontextuality’ and ‘context collapse’, among others – from the perspective of structuration theory. This chapter also expands on Swales’s understanding of metaphors of genre to critically address the aspects of generic evolution, hybridisation and change. The chapter also critically reflects on the concepts of ‘language collusion’ and ‘language collisions’ and draws on the metaphors of genre(s) and language(s) ecologies to explain the emergence of new genres on the web, the evolution of traditional genres, the interdependence between traditional and new genres and, more importantly, the creation of complex genre assemblages that support multilingual science communication on Web 2.0.
Chapter 6 outlines some specialised language planning and course design proposals involving genre-based approaches to Languages for Academic Purposes (LAP) instruction and/or communication training. Essentially, this chapter sketches out some aspects that instruction should take on board, placing the focus on the language and the rhetoric of traditional genres and on the use of data-driven learning tasks involving multilingual text composing. The chapter includes several tasks involving the text-composing practice of remediated and web-mediated emerging genres, as well as hands-on activities for developing writing skills in ASNSs and social media networking. The chapter also provides some reflective tasks involving both familiarisation and practice with digital resources for multimodal text composing. In closing, the chapter advocates the use of assessment methods and self-assessment reflective tools that can be conceptualised as ‘plurilingual portfolios of genre assemblages’ and ‘portfolios of multiliteracies’. These tools can foster independent, self-directed, lifelong learning and support academics and researchers’ professional development throughout their lifespan.
Chapter 5 expands on Johns’s socioliterate view of writing development to integrate her view within the mutually beneficial fields of genre theory or analysis and broader fields such as Second Language Acquisition, rhetoric and composition studies. Using survey research, this chapter explores researchers’ writing strategies and resources to compose traditional and new digital genres in one or more languages. In acknowledging the pedagogical value of individual experiences accumulated in writing practices, this chapter also attaches value to ‘generic interdiscursivity’, as prior genre knowledge can scaffold the composing process of other genres, both written, spoken and hybrid, through strategies of connectivity across discursive practice. The chapter critically supports Gentil’s important claim of ‘biliteracy’ in genre practices, or the use of previous genre knowledge in one language to compose genres in other languages. Corpus data illustrate aspects of multimodal rhetoric and the construction of visual scientific arguments in multisemiotic genres and in multilingual genre sets.
Chapter 3 frames the role of research genres within the broader social views of Giddens’s structuration theory and Russell’s activity theory to show how genres act within highly articulated social systems. The chapter seeks to validate the assumption that the processes underlying generic forms are paramount for assessing how researchers today draw on language repertoires to communicate their research work locally and globally in the physical and the virtual space. The discussion of this chapter revolves around the interdependence between traditional genres and what Miller and Kelly define as emerging genres in new media environments. Analogies with concepts from the field of literary criticism serve to clarify how emerging digital genres can be conceptualised as ‘generic hybrids’ as they draw on features of existing genres and enhance those genres using the multimodal and hypertextual possibilities of the Internet. The chapter finally addresses transformative practice in science communication to illustrate emerging forms of social interaction between scientists and science stakeholders.
Chapter 4 examines the situatedness of communicative practices to discuss the central role of languages in the dissemination of scientific knowledge. The concept of ‘fluid societies’ and Blommaert’s ‘sociolinguistics of mobility’ paradigm are used to propose a timely definition of academic and research settings as ‘fluid communities’ that engage in translingual and multilingual genre-mediated interactions. A critical review of the status and functions of English in the language ecology of such interactions introduces some reflections on language-related aspects – languaging practices, processes of language macroacquisition and coalescence of languages – that intersect with generified activity. Corpus and ethnographic (survey) data are used to describe ‘glocal’ and ‘translocal’ language use, language variation and change in and across genres. In contesting the monolingual habitus and foregrounding the plurilingual realities, the chapter closes with some final thoughts on the fact that ‘languages are still a major barrier to global science’.
To assess food environment at OsloMet, through the nutritional profile and processing level of available commercial foods and drinks; as well as to determine food purchasing behaviours, preferences and opinions on the food environment; in order to identify whether interventions on campus need to be conducted.
Cross-sectional descriptive study.
Pilestredet and Kjeller campus of OsloMet (Norway).
To analyse the nutritional profile of products offered at all food outlets (7 canteens, 3 coffee shops and 2 vending machines) at the main campuses three criteria were applied: those proposed by the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition, the UK Nutrient Profiling Model and those of the Food and Drink Industry Professional Practices Committee Norway. In addition, products were classified by processing level, using the NOVA system. Food purchasing, food choice behaviours, and opinions were analysed through a survey online, in which 129 subjects participated.
With regard to the first of the objectives, the combination of the above-mentioned criteria showed that 39·8% of the products were “unhealthy” and 85·9% were “ultra-processed”. Regarding the second objective, the most important determinants of food choice were taste, convenience, and cost and nutrition/health value. The most common improvements suggested were lowering the cost, improving the allergen information on labelling, and increasing the variety of fresh and healthy foods.
A high proportion of the products offered were considered “unhealthy” and highly processed. Interventions that improve food prices, availability and information on labelling would be well-receivedin this community.
Caring for infants after the first-stage palliative surgery for single-ventricle heart disease bring challenges beyond the usual parenting responsibilities. Current studies fail to capture the nuances of caregivers’ experiences during the most critical “interstage” period between the first and second surgery.
To explore the perceptions of caregivers about their experiences while transitioning to caregiver roles, including the successes and challenges associated with caregiving during the interstage period.
Constructivist Grounded Theory methodology guided the collection and analysis of data from in person or telephonic interviews with caregivers after their infants underwent the first-stage palliative surgery for single-ventricle heart disease, and were sent to home for 2–4 months before returning for their second surgery. Symbolic interactionism informed data analyses and interpretation.
Our sample included 14 parents, who were interviewed 1–2 times between November, 2019 and July, 2020. Most patients were mothers (71%), Latinx (64%), with household incomes <$30K (42%). Data analysis led to the development of a Grounded Theory called Developing a Sense of Self-Reliance with three categories: (1) Owning caregiving responsibilities despite grave fears, (2) Figuring out how “to make it work” in the interstage period, and (3) Gaining a sense of self-reliance.
Parents transitioned to caregiver roles by developing a sense of self-reliance and, in the process, gained self-confidence and decision-making skills. Our study responded to the key research priority from the AHA Scientific Statement to address the knowledge gap in home monitoring for interstage infants through qualitative research design.